Imbali emfutshane yePalestine

NguKirk Bailey

IPalestine yayiligama eliqhelekileyo elisetyenzisiweyo kude kube ngo-1948 ukuchaza ummandla wejografi phakathi koLwandle lweMeditera noMlambo iJordani. Kwimbali yayo, ubukhosi baseAsiriya, eBhabhiloni, baseRoma, baseByzantium, nase-Ottoman balawula iPalestine ngaxesha lithile.



Emva kweMfazwe yeHlabathi yokuQala, iPalestine yalawulwa yi-United Kingdom phantsi kwegunya elalifunyenwe ngo-1922 kwi-League of Nations. Imbali yanamhlanje yasePalestine iqala ngokupheliswa kwegunya lase-Bhritane, iSahlulo sePalestine kunye nokudalwa kuka-Israyeli, kunye nemfazwe eyalandelayo yase-Israeli-nePalestine.



Isahlulo sePalestine

Ngo-1947, uManyano lweZizwe eziManyeneyo (i-UN) lwaphakamisa iSicwangciso soHlulo sePalestine esibizwa ngokuba yi-United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181 (II) kaRhulumente wasePalestine. Isisombululo saqaphela ukupheliswa okucwangcisiweyo kweBritane kweMagunya aseBritane ePalestine kwaye yacebisa ukwahlulwa kwePalestine yaba ngamazwe amabini, elinye lamaJuda kunye nelinye lama-Arabhu, kunye nommandla waseJerusalem-waseBhetelehem okhuselweyo nolawulo lweZizwe eziManyeneyo.

Isisombululo siqulathe inkcazo eneenkcukacha kakhulu yemida ecetyiswayo kurhulumente ngamnye ocetywayo. Isisombululo sikwaqulathe izicwangciso zomanyano lwezoqoqosho phakathi kwamazwe acetywayo kunye nokukhuselwa kwamalungelo enkolo nawabantu abambalwa. Isisombululo sifuna ukurhoxiswa kwemikhosi yaseBritane kunye nokupheliswa kwegunya ngo-Agasti 1948 kunye nokusekwa kwamazwe amatsha azimeleyo ngo-Okthobha u-1948.



Imfazwe yokuqala yama-Arab-Israel (1948)

Ubunkokheli bamaJuda basamkela iSicwangciso sokwahlula kodwa iinkokheli zaseArabhu zasikhaba Umbutho wama-Arabhu woyikisa ngokuthatha amanyathelo omkhosi ukunqanda ukwahlulwa kwePalestine kunye nokuqinisekisa amalungelo esizwe abantu basePalestine abangama-Arabhu. Kusuku olunye ngaphambi kokuphela kwegunya laseBritane, u-Israyeli wabhengeza inkululeko yakhe ngaphakathi kwemida yoRhulumente wamaJuda njengoko kubekiwe kwisiCwangciso sokwahlulahlula. Amazwe ama-Arabhu abhengeza imfazwe kwiLizwe lakwa-Israyeli elisandula ukusekwa ukuqala iMfazwe yase-Arab-Israel ka-1948.

I-ambien isebenza njani

Emva kwemfazwe, abathi abantu basePalestine bayibiza ngokuba yiNtlekele, iziVumelwano zeArmistice zowe-1949 zamisela imigca yokwahlula phakathi kwabalwi: I-Israel yalawula iindawo ezithile ezazenzelwe ilizwe lama-Arabhu phantsi kwesiCwangciso sokwahlula, iTransjordan yalawula i-West Bank kunye ne-East Jerusalem, kwaye i-Egypt yalawula iGaza. Strip.

Imfazwe Yeentsuku Ezintandathu

Imfazwe yeentsuku ezintandathu yaliwa phakathi kukaJuni 5 ukuya ku-10, ngo-1967, kunye no-Israyeli bephuma bephumelele kwaye bethatha ulawulo lwe-Gaza Strip kunye ne-Sinai Peninsula yase-Egypt, i-West Bank kunye ne-East Jerusalem ukusuka e-Jordan, kunye ne-Golan Heights esuka e-Syria. IBhunga lezoKhuseleko le-UN lamkele isigqibo se-242, umhlaba wefomula yoxolo, eyayifuna ukuba kurhoxe kwa-Israyeli kwimimandla eyayihlala ngo-1967 kunye nokupheliswa kwawo onke amabango okanye amazwe e-belligerency. Isigqibo 242 samkele ilungelo lawo onke amazwe kwindawo yokuhlala ngoxolo ngaphakathi kwemida ekhuselekileyo kunye neyaziwayo ngaphandle kwezisongelo okanye izenzo zamandla.



Imfazwe yango-1973

Ngo-Okthobha u-1973, kwaqhambuka imfazwe kwakhona phakathi kuka-Israyeli ne-Egypt eSinayi nase-Syria e-Golan Heights. Ukupheliswa komlilo kwafezekiswa (isisombululo se-UN se-339) kwaye abagcini boxolo base-UN bathunyelwa kuwo omabini amacala, kuphela ukurhoxa kwimikhosi yase-Egypt emva kokuba u-Israyeli ne-Egypt benze isivumelwano soxolo kwi-1979. Abagcini boxolo be-UN bahlala bethunyelwe kwiiGolan Heights.

Ukunyuka kombutho wenkululeko wasePalestine (PLO)

Ngo-1974, i-Arab League yamkela uMbutho weNkululeko wasePalestine (i-PLO) njengommeli osemthethweni wabantu basePalestine yaza yashiya indima yayo njengommeli we-West Bank. I-PLO ifumene iwonga lokujonga kwi-UN General Assembly kwakuloo nyaka.

Ngo-1988, iBhunga leSizwe lasePalestina le-PLO lavuma iSibhengezo sokuZimela sasePalestine eAlgiers, eTunisia. Isibhengezo sibhengeza ilizwe lasePalestine kumhlaba wethu wasePalestina kunye nekomkhulu lawo iJerusalem, nangona ingachazi ngqo imida, kwaye iqinisekisa isigqibo se-UN UN. 181 ixhasa amalungelo abantu basePalestine nasePalestine. Isibhengezo sikhatshwa yifowuni ye-PLO yothethathethwano lwamazwe amaninzi ngesigqibo se-UN 242.

I-Intifada (1987 ukuya ku-1993)

Iimeko zase West Bank nase Gaza Strip, kubandakanya neJerusalem, emva kweminyaka engaphaya kwama-20 yokuthinjwa ngamajoni, ingcinezelo nokuhluthwa komhlaba, kwaba negalelo kwimvukelo yasePalestine eyayibizwa ngokuba yi-intifada ngoDisemba 1987. Phakathi kowe-1987 nowe-1993, kwabulawa abantu abangaphezu kwe-1 000 basePalestine. amawaka enzakele, avalelwa, avalelwa kwa-Israyeli okanye agxothwa kwimimandla yasePalestina.

amayeza entlungu ngenxa yeentlungu zomqolo

Inkqubo yoxolo

Ngo-1993, izivumelwano zase-Oslo, esokuqala esithe ngqo, isivumelwano sobuso ubuso ngobuso phakathi kuka-Israyeli ne-PLO, satyikitywa kwaye senzelwe ukubonelela ngesakhelo sobudlelwane bexesha elizayo phakathi kwala maqela mabini. Izivumelwano zenze iGunya leSizwe lasePalestine (PNA) linoxanduva lokulawula umhlaba ophantsi kolawulo lwawo. Izivumelwano zikwabize ukurhoxa kwemikhosi yakwa-Israeli kwiindawo zeGaza Strip nase West Bank.

Ukuphunyezwa kweziVumelwano zase-Oslo kwafumana ukubuyela umva ngokunzulu ekubulaweni kuka-Yitzhak Rabin, u-Nkulumbuso wase-Israel kunye notyikityo lweZivumelwano ze-Oslo, ngo-Novemba ka-1995. Ukusukela ngo-1995, iintlanganiso kunye nezindululo zoxolo, kubandakanya ne-Camp David Summit (2000), Taba Summit (2001), iMephu yeNdlela yoXolo (2002), kunye ne-Arab Peace Initiative (2002 kunye no-2007), bazamile ukurhweba ngesisombululo, kodwa bangaphumelela.

Iphulo lokuqonda ubume belizwe lasePalestine

Kwintetho yakhe nge-16 kaSeptemba, 2011, uMahmoud Abbas, uMongameli weGunya lesiZwe lasePalestine, wabhengeza injongo yakhe yokuqhubeka nesicelo sokwamkelwa koburhulumente kwiNdibano yeZizwe eziManyeneyo nakwiBhunga lezoKhuseleko. NgoSeptemba 23, 2011, uMongameli Abbas wahambisa isicelo esisemthethweni sokwamkelwa kukaRhulumente wasePalestine kuNobhala Jikelele weZizwe eziManyeneyo. Imiba emininzi isalungiswa ngamaSirayeli namaPalestina, nangona kunjalo, ngaphambi kokuba kuvele ilizwe elizimeleyo lasePalestine. Iingxoxo ziyaqhubeka.