Ixabiso le-Cross-Elasticity of Demand kwi-Economics yoLawulo

Ngu-Robert J. Graham

Inkqubo ye- Ukonyuka kwexabiso lentengo Imilinganiselo yokuphendula kwemfuno elungileyo yotshintsho kwixabiso lesibini elungileyo . Kuqoqosho lwezolawulo, olu lwalamano lubalulekile kuba inani labathengi bakho abalithengayo lichukunyiswa ngamaxabiso eefemu eziphikisanayo ezihlawulisa iimpahla ezifanayo. Kwakhona, ixabiso olibizayo ngokulungileyo-ii-hamburger, umzekelo-zinefuthe kwisixa osithengisayo sesibini esihle, iifries zaseFrance.

Ungayijonga njani i-cross-price elasticity of demand

Ukubala ixabiso le-cross-elasticity of demand kufuna ukumisela ukuba kulungile kangakanani x Imfuno zotshintsho ekuphenduleni kwixabiso elahlukileyo lokuhle Y.



Ukwanda kwexabiso lomnqamlezo kwifomula yebango yile

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Qaphela ukuba le fomyula ifana njani nezinye iifomula ze-elasticity. Kule meko, uphawu ηx, yimele ukwanda kwexabiso lentengo. Inkqubo ye- x imele okulungileyo esitshintsha ubuninzi, kwaye Y imele okulungileyo ixabiso layo liyatshintsha.

Ke, kwifomula, uphawu Qx0imele ibango lokuqala okanye ubungakanani obuthengelwe okuhle x xa ixabiso elungileyo Y nguPy0. Uphawu Qx1imele ukulunga x ’Imfuno entsha xa ilungile Y Amaxabiso atshintsha kwiPy1.

Njengawo onke amaxabiso okunyaniseka, inani elikhulu (nokuba lilungile okanye alilunganga), kokukhona ubhetyebhetye okanye ubungakanani obuphendulayo buninzi. Kwi-cross-price elasticity of demand, inani elikhulu libonisa ukuba iimfuno ezilungileyo ze-x ziya kutshintsha kakhulu xa amaxabiso amahle etshintsha.

Inkampani yakho yomatshini wokuthengisa ngoku ithengisa iziselo ezibandayo kwi $ 1.50 ngebhotile nganye, kwaye ngelo xabiso, abathengi bathenga iibhotile ezingama-2 000 ngeveki. Kwangelo xesha, ivenkile elula yendawo ithengisa iziselo ezibandayo ezifanayo nge $ 1.25 ngebhotile nganye. Ivenkile elula ithatha isigqibo sokuqhuba okhethekileyo kwaye yehlisa ixabiso leziselo ezibandayo ukuya kwi-1.00 ngebhotile. Ngenxa yoko, ukuthengisa kwakho kwehla kwiibhotile ezili-1,800 ngeveki.

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Awukhange utshintshe ixabiso lomatshini othengisayo kwiziselo, kodwa intengiso yakho yehlile ngenxa yentengiso yevenkile elula. Ukwanda kwexabiso lomnqamlezo kwebango kuya kukuxelela ukuba uphendula njani kumatshini wokuthengisa othululwayo kumatshini othengisayo kutshintsho lwamaxabiso kwivenkile elula.

Nantsi into oyenzayo ukumisela ukuba intengiso yevenkile elula ichaphazela njani ibango lakho:

  1. Kungenxa yokuba i-1.25 yeedola lixabiso lokuqala leziselo ezibandayo kwivenkile elula (elungileyo Y ), kunye no-2 000 linani leziselo ezihlwahlwazayo ezithengiswa koomatshini abathengisayo (kulungile x ), beka i-1.25 kwi-Py0Kunye nama-2 000 ukuya kumBx0.

  2. Kungenxa yokuba i-1.00 kunye ne-1,800 lixabiso elitsha lokulungileyo Y (iivenkile ezilula) kunye nobungakanani bokulunga x (oomatshini abathengisayo), beka i-1.00 kwi-Py1kunye ne-1,800 kwi-Qx1.

  3. Yahlula-hlula inkcazo ngaphezulu kwe-equation.

    (Umbuzox1- Qx0) kulingana -200, kunye no (Q1+ Q0lilingana nama-3 800. Ukwahlula -200 ngama-3 800 alingana –1/19.

  4. Yahlula-hlula intetho ezantsi kwe-equation.

    (Iphephay1-Upy0Ilingana- $ 0.25, kunye (Py1+ Iphey0Ilingana ne $ 2.25. Ukwahlula - $ 0.25 nge $ 2.25 ilingana -1/9.

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  5. Yahlula iziphumo eziphezulu, -1/19, ngeziphumo ezisezantsi, -1/9.

    Ufumana ixabiso le-cross-elasticity of demand 9/19 okanye 0.474.

Ke ixabiso le-cross-elasticity yebango leziselo ezinxilisayo lilingana

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Ixabiso le-cross-elasticity of demand likuxelela ukuba iipesenti ezi-1 zehla kwixabiso le-y elungileyo, ivenkile elula yokusela, ibangela ukwehla kweepesenti ezingama-0.474 kwimfuno yeziselo ezibandayo koomatshini abathengisayo. Ukuthengisa komatshini othengisayo akuchaphazeleka kakhulu kutshintsho lwamaxabiso evenkile.

Ukutshintshwa kunye nokugqitywa

Ababambeleyo Ziimpahla ezisetyenziswa ngokungafaniyo - enye isetyenziswa endaweni yomnye. Cinga ngeetshiphusi kunye neepretzels. Ke, ukwanda kwexabiso lolungileyo, elungileyo Y, ibangela ukonyuka kobungakanani obutyiweyo ngokulungileyo kwesibini, kulungile x. Olu tshintsho lwenzeka kuba abathengi baya kuhlala betshintshela kwixabiso eliphantsi.

Ke, ukwanda kwexabiso leetshipsi zeetapile, kulungile y, kuthetha ukuba abathengi baya kutshintsha kwaye bathenge ngakumbi ii-x ezilungileyo, ii-pretzels. Ke, ubudlelwane obuthe ngqo bukhona phakathi kwexabiso lokulungileyo Y kunye nemfuno yokulunga x, kwaye zithatha indawo.

Ukugqitywa Ziimpahla ezisetyenziswa kunye, ezifana nekofu kunye nokhrimu. Ukugcwalisa, ubudlelwane obungenakuphikiswa bukhona phakathi kokulungileyo Y Ixabiso kwaye intle x Ibango; ukuba kulungile Y Ixabiso liyenyuka, ibango lokulungileyo x iyancipha kwaye ngokuchaseneyo. Ke, ukuba ixabiso lekhofi liyenyuka, kulungile Y, usela ikofu encinci, kunye nebango lakho lekrimu, kulungile x, iyancipha.

Okokugqibela, ixabiso liya kuba likhulu, nokuba lihle okanye alilunganga, kwi-cross-price elasticity of demand, obuqina ubudlelwane phakathi kwezi zinto zimbini.