Umahluko phakathi kwe-Analog kunye ne-Digital Electronics

NguDoug Lowe

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Zonke izinto ze-elektroniki zingahlulwa zibe ngamacandelo amabini abanzi: i-analog kunye nedijithali. Omnye wemizekelo eqhelekileyo yomahluko phakathi kwezixhobo ze-analog kunye nezedijithali yiwotshi. Kwiwotshi ye-analog, ixesha limelwe zizandla ezijikeleza ukudayala kwaye zalatha kwindawo ekucofe kuyo emele ixesha eliqikelelweyo. Kwiwotshi yedijithali, isibonisi senani sibonisa elona xesha lichanekileyo.



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Analog ibhekisa kwimijikelezo apho izixa ezinje ngevolthi okanye zangoku ziyahluka ngokwenzeka ngokuqhubekayo. Xa uvula ucofo lwe-potentiometer, umzekelo, utshintsha ukuxhathisa ngenqanaba eliqhubekayo lokutshintsha. Ukuxhathisa kwe-potentiometer kunokuba naliphi na ixabiso phakathi kobona buncinci kunye nobona bukhulu buvunyelwe yimbiza.

Ukuba wenza isahluli sevolthi ngokubeka isichasana esisigxina kuthotho kunye ne-potentiometer, i-voltage kwinqanaba eliphakathi kwesixhathisi esisigxina kunye ne-potentiometer inyuka okanye yehle ngokutyibilikayo njengoko ujika iqhosha kwi-potentiometer.



Kwi yedijithali elektroniki, izixa zibaliwe endaweni yokulinganisa. Kukho umahluko obalulekileyo phakathi kokubala nokulinganisa. Xa u bala into, ufumana isiphumo ngqo. Xa u umlinganiso into, ufumana iziphumo ezisondeleyo.

Cinga iresiphi yekhekhe efuna iikomityi ezimbini zomgubo, 1 indebe yobisi, kunye namaqanda ama-2. Ukufumana iikomityi ezi-2 zomgubo, uthabatha umgubo kwikomityi yokulinganisa indebe e-1, uthele umgubo kwisitya, emva koko uphinde uphinde. Ukufumana ikomityi yobisi, ugalela ubisi kwikomityi yokulinganisa engamanzi de ibe ngaphezulu kweelayini zobisi kunye nomgca we-1-indebe eprintwe kwikomityi yokulinganisa emva koko uthele ubisi kwisitya sokuxuba. Ukufumana amaqanda ama-2, ubale amaqanda ama-2, uwaqhekeze, kwaye uwafake kwisitya sokuxuba.

Imilinganiselo yomgubo kunye nobisi kule recipe iyaqikelelwa. I-teaspoon kakhulu okanye incinci kakhulu ayinakuchaphazela isiphumo. Kodwa amaqanda abalwa ngokuchanekileyo: ngokuchanekileyo 2. Hayi u-3, hayi u-1, hayi u-11/2, kodwa u-2. Awunakuba netispuni yamaqanda amaninzi okanye ambalwa kakhulu. Kuza kubakho amaqanda ama-2 ngokuchanekileyo, kuba uyawabala.



Ke yeyiphi echanekileyo - i-analog okanye idijithali? Ngenye indlela, iisekethe zedijithali zichanekile ngakumbi kuba zibala ngokuchaneka ngokupheleleyo. Unokubala ngokuchanekileyo inani leembotyi zejeli engqayini, umzekelo.

Kodwa ukuba ulinganisa ingqayi ngokuyibeka kwisikali se-analog, ukufunda kwakho kunokuba yinto engacacanga kuba awunakuhlala ugweba indawo ngqo yenaliti. Yithi inaliti kwisikali imalunga nesiqingatha phakathi kweepawundi ezi-4 kunye neepawundi ezi-5. Ngaba ingqayi inesisindo esiyi-4.5 yeepawundi okanye i-4.6 yeepawundi? Awunakutsho ngokuqinisekileyo, ke uhlala malunga nama-4.5 eepawundi.

Kwelinye icala, iisekethe zedijithali zilinganiselwe ngokwendalo ngokuchaneka kwazo kuba kufuneka zibala kwiiyunithi ezisisigxina. Uninzi lweethemometha zedijithali, umzekelo, zinedijithi enye kuphela ekunene kwenqaku lokugqibela. Ke, banokubonisa ubushushu be-98.6 okanye i-98.7 kodwa abakwazi ukubonisa u-98.65.

Nazi ezinye zeengcinga onokucinga ngazo malunga nokwahluka phakathi kwenkqubo yedijithali kunye ne-analog:

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  • Ukuthi inkqubo yedijithali ayifani nokuthi yinto yokubini. UBhanari luhlobo oluthile lwenkqubo yedijithali apho ubalo lwenziwa lonke ngenkqubo yeenambambili. Phantse zonke iinkqubo zedijithali nazo ziinkqubo zebhanari, kodwa amagama amabini awatshintshi.

  • Iinkqubo ezininzi ziyindibaniselwano yeenkqubo zokubini kunye nezeanalog. Kwinkqubo edibanisa amaxabiso kunye nexabiso leanalog, isekethe ekhethekileyo iyafuneka ukuguqula ukusuka kwi-analog iye kwidijithali, okanye ngokuchaseneyo. Umbane wokufaka (i-analog) unokuguqulwa ulandelelanise iipulse, enye yevolthi nganye; emva koko iimpundu zinokubalwa ukumisela umbane.