Ukuzoba iZakhiwo zikaLewis Dot zeKhemistry

Ngu-Peter J. Mikulecky, uChris Hren

Iindleko zangaphambi kwexesha 13

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Kwi-chemistry, ukuzoba izakhiwo zamachaphaza ka-Lewis kunokuba ngumceli mngeni, kodwa zibonelela ngobutyebi bolwazi malunga neemolekyuli ezimele zona. Khumbula ukuba izakhiwo zamachaphaza zikaLewis zitsaliwe ngokudibeneyo (molekyuli) iikhompawundi ezabelana ngee-elektroni. Landela la manyathelo alula ukuzoba ngokuchanekileyo ulwakhiwo lwamachaphaza ka-Lewis:



  1. Yongeza inani elipheleleyo lee-elektroniki ze-valence ezifumaneka kuyo yonke indawo.

    Musa ukulibala ukubandakanya naziphi na izityholo ezilungileyo nezingalunganga xa umisela oku.



  2. Zoba ubume obulula (ubume bamathambo) bekhompawundi ngokudibanisa yonke into ngeebhondi enye kuphela.

  3. Yongeza ii-elektroni kuzo zonke iiathom ezingafakwanga.

    Qaphela ukuba uninzi lweeathom zifuna ii-elektroni ezisibhozo zizonke, ke iiathom ezinebhondi enye ziya kufuna ukufumana ii-elektroni ezintandathu. Nangona kunjalo, i-hydrogen ifuna ii-electron ezimbini kuphela; ibhondi nganye ibalwa njengee-elektroni ezimbini ekwabelwana ngazo, ke sukufaka naziphi na ii-elektroni kwi-hydrogen.



  4. Beka naziphi na ii-electron ezingasetyenziswanga kwi-atom ephakathi.

    Ukuba zonke iiathom (ngaphandle kwehydrogen) ngoku zineeelectron ezisibhozo, ugqibile.

  5. Ukuba iathom enye okanye ezingaphezulu azinae-elektroni ezisibhozo, kuya kufuneka wenze iibhondi eziphindwe kabini okanye kathathu phakathi kwazo.

    I-lotrimin yosulelo lwegwele

    Gcina ukhumbule ukuba ibhondi nganye ibalwa ngee-electron ezimbini ezabelwana ngazo.

  6. Ukuba zonke iiathom ngoku zinee-elektroni ezisibhozo ezijikelezileyo, ugqibile. Ukuba unayo i-valence electron esele, yongeze kwi-athomu ephakathi, nangona iphula umthetho we-octet.

    Ulwakhiwo lwamachaphaza e-Lewis e-chemistry.