INzululwazi yezeNdalo yeeModeli zokuKhula kwaBantu

Ngu-Alecia M. Spooner

I-tylenol kwisisu esingenanto

Iinzulu-lwazi zezendalo zisebenzisa iimodeli ezimbini ukuchaza indlela abantu abakhula ngayo ngokuhamba kwexesha: imodeli yokukhula ebonakalayo kunye nemodeli yokukhula kwezinto. Iikhonsepthi ezimbini ezibalulekileyo zixhomekeke kuzo zombini iimodeli zokukhula kwabemi:



  • Ukuthwala umthamo: Ukuthwala amandla linani labantu abanokuxhaswa ngempumelelo zizibonelelo ezikhoyo zendalo. Kwibalo kunye neemodeli, uphawu UKUYA imele ukuthwala umthwalo.

  • Ukunciphisa umda: UKUYA Ukunciphisa umda kwezixhobo sisixhobo ekufuneka izinto eziphilayo zibe nazo ukuze siphile kwaye sifumaneka kuphela ngobungakanani obulinganiselweyo kwindalo esingqongileyo. Ke ngoko, umda kwimithombo yezixhobo ukunciphisa ukwanda kwabemi. Ukutya namanzi zizinto eziqhelekileyo zokuthintela izilwanyana.

Imodeli yokukhula kwenani labemi

Kwi Imodeli yokukhula ebonakalayo, Ukwanda kwabemi ngokuhamba kwexesha sisiphumo senani labantu abafumanekayo lokuphinda bavelise ngaphandle kokujonga imida yezixhobo. Ekukhuleni okubonakalayo, ubungakanani babemi bonyuka kwinqanaba lokucacisa ngokuhamba kwexesha, ukuqhubeka ukuya phezulu njengoko kubonisiwe kulo mzobo.



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Umgca, okanye ijika, olibonayo kulo mzobo libonisa indlela abanokukhula ngayo ngokukhawuleza abantu xa bengajonganga naziphi na izibonelelo ezisikelwe umda. Umgca wenza imilo efana nonobumba UJ kwaye ngamanye amaxesha ibizwa ngokuba yi J-ijika.

Izazinzulu zihlala zichaza iimodeli ezinamanani. Imodeli yokukhula yokulinganisa ebonakalayo ibonakala ngoluhlobo:



dN / dt = rN

Iimpawu ezikule nxaki zibonisa iikhonsepthi. Nantsi indlela yokuguqulela i-equation kumagama: Utshintsho (d) kwinani labantu (N) ngaphezulu kotshintsho (d) ngexesha (t) lilingana nenqanaba lokunyuka (r) kwinani labantu (N).

ungathatha i-subutex nge-opiates

Imodeli yokukhula kwenani labemi

Ngokwenyani, ukukhula kwabemi abaninzi kuxhomekeke ubuncinci kwinxalenye yezixhobo ezikhoyo kwiindawo zabo. Ukumodareyitha ukukhula koluntu okwenyani, izazinzulu ziphuhlise Logi s imodeli yokukhula, ebonisa indlela abantu abanokunyuka ngayo ngokude bade bafikelele kumthamo wobume bendawo esingqongileyo. Xa inani labemi lifikelela kumthamo wokuthwala, ukukhula kwabemi kuyehla okanye kuyeke kwaphela. Eli nani libonisa imodeli yokukhula kwamalungiselelo.

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Kwimodeli yokukhula kokuhamba, ubungakanani benani labemi licinyiwe ngenxa yokuba izibonelelo ezinomda zithintela nakuphi na ukukhula okungaphaya. Le modeli isebenza ngakumbi kubemi abaphendula izinto ezixhomekeke koxinano. Njengoko ubona kulo mzobo, imodeli yokukhula kokulunga ibonakala njengonobumba S, yiyo loo nto kusoloko kusithiwa yi Ijika-S.

Oososayensi bachaza imodeli yokukhula kwamalungiselelo ngala manani alandelayo, asebenzisa iisimboli ezifanayo nemodeli yokukhula ebonakalayo (jonga icandelo elandulelayo):

I-dN / dt = rN (1 - N / K)

Olu lingano luthi utshintsho (d) kwinani labantu (N) ngaphezulu kotshintsho (d) ngexesha (t) lilingana nenqanaba lokunyuka (r) kwinani labantu apho ubungakanani benani labantu (N) yinxalenye umthamo (K).

Elona candelo lililo malunga neli nqanaba kukuba libandakanya indlela yokufumana isiphumo esibi sokunika ingxelo kubemi abaninzi abathembele kwizibonelelo ezifanayo njengabemi abambalwa.

Ngelixa imodeli yokukhula kokulunga ihlala ichaza ngakumbi into eyenzekayo ngokwenyani kunemodeli yokukhula ebonakalayo, ayikachazi ngokuchanekileyo okwenzeka rhoqo ebomini bokwenyani. Oko oosonzululwazi bakubonileyo kwindalo kukuba abantu kunqabile ukuba bafikelele kumthamo wokuhlala kwaye bazinzile. Endaweni yoko, bafumana amava abiziweyo hamba kwaye ufe.

Ukutshiza i-granulex ebantwini

Njengoko abantu besondela kumthamo wabo wokuthwala, inzala eninzi iyazalwa kunokuba oovimba abakhoyo banokuxhasa; ngenxa yoko, inani labemi liyodlula, okanye ukugqithisa, umthamo wokuthwala. Xa inani labemi lidlula oko kunokuthi lixhase okusingqongileyo, abanye abantu bayasokola kwaye bafe ngenxa yezixhobo ezingonelanga.

Eli nani libonisa ukuba ipatheni ye-overshoot kunye nokufa ikhangeleka njani. Imeko eqhelekileyo ekhokelela kule patheni kukwahluka kokufumaneka kobutyebi unyaka nonyaka. Umzekelo, nangona ukutya okuninzi kufumaneka kule ntwasahlobo ngelixa abantu bezala, ngexesha lokuzalwa kwembewu, izixhobo zokutya zisenokuba zitshintshile ngokwaneleyo ukuba azinakho ukuxhasa yonke inzala entsha.

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