Indlela yokubala uxinzelelo olukhethekileyo usebenzisa uMthetho kaDalton

Ngu-Peter J. Mikulecky, uChris Hren

Xa iigesi zixubeka, igesi nganye ngaphakathi komxube inegalelo koxinzelelo oluyinxalenye, kwaye ukongeza uxinzelelo oluyinxalenye kuvelisa uxinzelelo olupheleleyo. Olu lwalamano lushwankathelwa UDalton ' Umthetho woxinzelelo olungaphelelanga ngomxube weegesi nganye:



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Obu budlelwane bunengqiqo ukuba ucinga ngoxinzelelo ngokwe-kinetic theory molecular theory. Ukongeza isampulu yegasi kumthamo othile osele uqukethe ezinye iigesi kwandisa inani lamasuntswana kuloo ndawo. Ngenxa yokuba uxinzelelo luxhomekeke kwinani lamasuntswana angqubana neendonga zesikhongozeli, ukonyusa inani lamasuntswana kwandisa uxinzelelo ngokulinganayo.

Akukho nxalenye eyodwa yoxinzelelo kufuneka uyisebenzise xa usenza iingxaki nge-Dalton's-pressure-equation equation. Ngethuba nje ukuba iiyunithi zoxinzelelo zazo zonke iigesi zifana, ulungile ukuhamba. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba zonke iingcinezelo ezinikiweyo azikho kwiiyunithi ezifanayo, ke ukuguqulwa okuthile kufuneka kwenzeke!



Apha ' Umzekelo: I-chemist iyila uvavanyo lokufunda i-chemistry yomoya woMhlaba wokuqala. Wakha isixhobo sokudibanisa iisampulu ezinyulu zegesi eziphambili zentaba-mlilo ezenza iatmosferi yeebhiliyoni zeminyaka eyadlulayo: icarbon dioxide, ammonia, kunye nomphunga wamanzi. Ukuba uxinzelelo oluyinxalenye lwezi gesi zingama-50 kPa, 80 kPa, ne-120 kPa, ngokwahlukeneyo, yintoni uxinzelelo lomxube obangelwayo?

Nangona kunzima ekuqaleni-komhlaba i-chemistry ye-chemistry ingabonakala, le ngxaki ethile ilula. Umthetho kaDalton uthi uxinzelelo olupheleleyo sisambuku nje seengcinezelo zenxalenye yeegesi zecandelo:

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Ke, uxinzelelo lomxube obangelwayo 250 kPa.

Apha ' Enye ingxaki: I-chemist yongeza i-zinc powder eqinile kwisisombululo se-hydrochloric acid ukuqala ukuphendula okulandelayo:

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I-chemist igxotha ityhubhu yokuvavanya kwaye igxotha umlomo ovulekileyo kwi-beaker yokuphendula ukuqokelela igesi ye-hydrogen ephuma kwisisombululo. Impendulo iqhubeka nokulingana. Ekupheleni kovavanyo, amanqanaba amanzi ngaphakathi kwetyhubhu nangaphandle kwetyhubhu ayalingana. Uxinzelelo kwilebhu ngu-101.325 kPa, kwaye iqondo lobushushu lazo zonke izinto zingama-298 K. Uxinzelelo lwamanzi ku-298 K ngu-3.17 kPa. Luyintoni uxinzelelo lwenxalenye yegesi ye-hydrogen ebhajwe kwityhubhu?

Inkqubo ifikelele kulungelelwaniso, ke ingaphakathi lombhobho linomxube wegesi yegesi ye-hydrogen kunye nomphunga wamanzi. Ngenxa yokuba amanqanaba amanzi ngaphakathi nangaphandle kwetyhubhu ayalingana, uyazi ukuba uxinzelelo olupheleleyo ngaphakathi kwityhubhu lilingana noxinzelelo lwelebhu, 101.325 kPa. Uxinzelelo olupheleleyo lubandakanya igalelo loxinzelelo lwenxalenye evela kwigesi ye-hydrogen nakumphunga wamanzi. Misela i-equation usebenzisa umthetho kaDalton, ulungelelanise i-equation ukusombulula uxinzelelo lwegesi ye-hydrogen, fakela amanani akho, kwaye usombulule:

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Ke, uxinzelelo lwenxalenye yegesi yehidrojeni ebanjiswe kwityhubhu yile I-98.1 kPa.