Ingqele

Ingqele

By Uhlaziyo lweMedia; Ukuhlaziywa ngu-Varixcare.cz. Igqityelwe ukuhlaziywa ngoJuni 1, 2021.

Yintoni iNarcolepsy?

Ukupapashwa kwezeMpilo eHarvard

I-narcolepsy sisifo esidala ukuba ngequbuliso ubuthongo obunzulu. Ezi ziqendu zinokwenzeka rhoqo kwaye nangamaxesha angafanelekanga, umzekelo xa umntu ethetha, esitya okanye eqhuba. Nangona iziqendu zokulala zingenzeka nangaliphi na ixesha, zinokuba rhoqo rhoqo ngexesha lokungasebenzi okanye ukungakhathali, ukuphindaphinda umsebenzi.



I-narcolepsy ihlala ibonakala phakathi kweminyaka eyi-15 ukuya kwe-30, kodwa imeko inokuvela kwangoko okanye kamva. Nje ukuba ivele, i-narcolepsy ikhona ebomini. Amadoda nabasetyhini bachaphazeleka ngokulinganayo.



Phantse iipesenti ezingama-50 zabantu abane-narcolepsy efumanekayo banokudityaniswa kokulala okuphawulwe emini kunye neziqendu ngesiquphe sobuthathaka bemisipha (ebizwa ngokuba yi-cataplexy). Ubuthathaka bemisipha bunokuba bukhulu kangangokuba umntu onesifo sokudlathuka kwengqondo uza kuwa phantsi, kodwa angabikho zingqondweni. Olu hlobo lwe-narcolepsy lunxulunyaniswa nokunqongophala kweprotein evuselela ingqondo ebizwa ngokuba yi-orexin (ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-hypocretin).

Unobangela wezinye iintlobo ze-narcolepsy awaziwa. Imfuzo (ezuzwe njengelifa) ukubonakala kubonakala ngathi kudlala indima.



Abantu abane-narcolepsy abadingi ukulala iiyure ezongezelelekileyo, kodwa bafuna ukulala emini kuba kunzima ukuhlala bephaphile ixesha elide. Ngethuba lobusuku, abantu abaphilileyo baqhubela phambili ngokwamanqanaba aliqela okulala ngaphambi kokungena okanye ukushiya imeko yokulala ebizwa ngokuba kukuhamba kwamehlo ngokukhawuleza (REM). Ngexesha lokulala kwe-REM, amaza obuchopho bakho afana nalawo avusiweyo, amaphupha abonakalayo ayenzeka kwaye ithoni yemisipha iyacotha. Kwi-narcolepsy, ipatheni yokutshintsha kwengqondo inokutsiba amanye okanye onke amanye amanqanaba okulala, ibangele ukuba umntu asuke kwimeko yokuvuka kwangoko aye kulala kwe-REM, okanye ukuvusa ngokuthe ngqo kwinqanaba lokulala le-REM.

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Iimpawu

Olona phawu lokuqala lokungalali ngesiqhelo kukulala emini, okunokuba kukhulu. Nangona kunjalo, kungathatha iminyaka ukuqonda ingxaki ngenxa yokuba ezinye izizathu eziqhelekileyo zokulala emini zihlala zibekek 'ityala kwiimpawu.

I-narcolepsy ineempawu ezine eziphambili. Kuqhelekile ukuba abantu abane-narcolepsy babe neempawu ezingaphezulu kwesinye, kodwa kunqabile ukuba umntu onesifo abe nazo zone ezi zinto:



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  • Ukulala kakhulu emini - Oku kuhlala kukho kwaye kuhlala kuyeyona mpawu iphambili.
  • Cataplexy - Oku kukuphulukana ngesiquphe, okwethutyana kwethoni yemisipha, ebangela ukukhubazeka kwentloko okanye komzimba ngelixa umntu esazi. Inokuhlala imizuzwana embalwa okanye imizuzu eliqela. Uhlaselo oluncinci lunokubangela intetho egudileyo okanye ethintithayo, ukuxhoma iinkophe okanye ubuthathaka besandla obangela ukuba umntu alahle izinto. Uhlaselo oluqatha lunokubangela ukuba amadolo aqhume, okukhokelela ekuweni. Ngokwesiqhelo, i-cataplexy iziswa kukuhleka, ukonwaba okanye umsindo. Ukuphumla ngesiquphe kwethoni yemisipha kusenokwenzeka ukuba sisiphumo sokungena ngesiquphe kokulala kwe-REM.
  • Ukulala ukukhubazeka - Oku kukungakwazi okwethutyana ukuhamba ngelixa ulele okanye uvuka. Kuhlala ngaphezulu kwemizuzu eliqela. Njenge-cataplexy, ukulala nokukhubazeka kusenokwenzeka ukuba kunxulumene nokwahlulahlula okwaneleyo phakathi kokulala kwe-REM kunye nemeko yokuvuka.
  • Imibono yehipnagogic - Le yimifanekiso enjengephupha ebonwa ngexesha lokuvuka endaweni yokulala. Le mibono ihlala yoyikisa ibonwa kanye njengokuba umntu elele okanye evuka. Zivame ukuvela kubantu abaneziphene zokulala.

Iimpawu zihlala ziqala ngexesha lokufikisa okanye ebudaleni. Abantu abane-narcolepsy bakhalaza ngokudinwa, amava okungasebenzi kakuhle emsebenzini nasesikolweni, kwaye banokuba nobunzima kubudlelwane boluntu. Ukulala kakhulu emini kunokukhubaza kwaye kungabunciphisa kakhulu ubomi bomntu. Imemori kunye nokuphazamiseka okubonakalayo kunokucaphukisa ngakumbi.

Ngaphezulu kwama-50% abantu abanamava okuphulukana nengqondo ngexesha lokuphelelwa yimemori okanye ukucima kombane okubangelwa lixesha elifutshane kakhulu lokulala elibizwa ngokuba yi-micro-sleeps. Ukulala okuncinci akubalulekanga kubantu abane-narcolepsy, kwaye banokufumana amava kuye nabani na olele ubuthongo obunzima. Ngamaxesha okulala ahlala imizuzwana embalwa, kwaye ihlala ingabonwa. Ngexesha leziqendu, umntu unokulahleka xa ehamba okanye eqhuba, ebhala okanye ethetha into engekhoyo, ebeka izinto endaweni engafanelekanga, okanye engqubeka ezintweni. Emva kwexesha ebuchotsheni, umntu naye unokukhulisa ukuphuthelwa (ubunzima bokulala) ngexesha lokulala eliqhelekileyo.

Uxilongo

Ukufumanisa i-narcolepsy, ugqirha wakho uya kukubuza malunga nembali yakho yeziqendu eziqhelekileyo kwaye uya kuthi ulale ubusuku bokulala. Isifundo sokulala sijonga ezinye iinkcazo ezinokuthi zibangele ukulala emini, njengokuphefumla kokulala okanye ezinye izizathu zokuphazamiseka kokulala. Uvavanyo lokulala luthatha amanyathelo amaza obuchopho, ukuhamba kwamehlo, ukusebenza kwemisipha, ukubetha kwentliziyo, amanqanaba eoksijini yegazi kunye nokuphefumla.

Isifundo esithile esibizwa ngokuba luvavanyo lokulala oluninzi luyinxalenye efunekayo yovavanyo lwe-narcolepsy. Olu vavanyo kufuneka lwenziwe emva kokuba umntu elale ngokwaneleyo. Uvavanyo lokulinda oluninzi lokulala luqukethe amathuba amane emizuzu engama-20 yokulala, anikezelwa rhoqo emva kweeyure ezimbini ngalo lonke usuku. Izigulana ezine-narcolepsy ziyalala malunga nemizuzu emihlanu okanye ngaphantsi, kwaye ziye ekulaleni kwe-REM ngexesha ubuncinci besibini sokulala. Ngokwesiqhelo abantu abalele ngokwaneleyo baphumla malunga nemizuzu eli-12 ukuya kweli-14 ukulala ubuthongo emini, kwaye musa ukulala ngqo kwi-REM.

Ixesha elilindelekileyo

I-narcolepsy ayinakunyangeka kwaye ayipheli. Kwiimeko ezininzi, iimpawu zinokuncitshiswa ngamayeza, ukulala rhoqo kunye nemikhwa elungileyo yokulala.

Uthintelo

Akukho ndlela yokuthintela i-narcolepsy. Kubantu abanale meko, ukuthintela iimeko ezizisa iziqendu ze-narcolepsy kunokunceda ukunciphisa amaxesha abo. Ukuba une-narcolepsy kwaye iimpawu zakho azilawulwa ngamayeza, awusoze utshaye kuba ungalala ngecuba elikhanyisiweyo, kwaye akufuneki uqhube.

Unyango

Olona phawu luphambili lwe-narcolepsy, ukulala kakhulu emini, lunokukhululeka ngokuyinxenye ngezivuseleli ezinjenge-modafinil ( Provigil ), imethylphenidate ( URitalin kunye namanye amagama egama) okanye i-dextroamphetamine (i-Dexedrine), kunye ne-naps emfutshane emiselweyo emini.

I-Cataplexy kunye nokulala ukukhubazeka kunokunyangwa ngamayeza ahlukeneyo anokukwenza ukuba uxhathise ukungena kwi-REM. Uninzi lala mayeza enzelwe ukusetyenziswa njengezidambisi. Imizekelo yamayeza anokubakho afanelekileyo abandakanya venlafaxine ( Umncedisi ), fluoxetine ( Iprozac ) kunye neprotriptyline (Vivactil).

ICataplexy nayo inokunyangwa nge-sodium oxybate (ekwabizwa ngokuba yi-gamma hydroxybutyrate okanye i-Xyrem), nangona ukusetyenziswa kweli chiza kulawulwa ngokuqinileyo kuba kuye kwaxhatshazwa ngokuzonwabisa. Ngenxa yezizathu ezingaqondakali kakuhle, idosi ephantsi yeli yeza inciphisa ukuhlaselwa kwe-cataplexy kunye nokuphucula ukulala emini kubantu abane-narcolepsy kunye ne-cataplexy, nangona ichiza libangela ukuba abantu abaninzi bangabinayo i-narcolepsy.

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Iingcebiso ngezengqondo zinokubaluleka kubunzima obunxulumene nokuzithemba kunye nenkxaso yeemvakalelo, ngakumbi kuba abantu abane-narcolepsy banobunzima ekwenzeni imisebenzi efuna ukugxila, kwaye banokuthathwa njengongakhuthazwayo lusapho kunye noontanga.

Nini ukubiza iNgcali

Tsalela umnxeba ugqirha ukuba ulele kakhulu emini. Kuya kufuneka kuvavanywe ngokukhawuleza ukuba iziqendu zenzeka ngelixa uqhuba imoto okanye oomatshini abasebenza.

Ukuxela kwangaphambili

Abantu abane-narcolepsy banomngcipheko ophezulu kakhulu wokufa okanye wokonzakala kakhulu okubangelwa yimoto okanye iingozi ezinxulumene nomsebenzi, kwaye kufuneka bakhathalele ukunqanda iimeko ezinokuthi zenzeke iingozi ezinjalo.

Izixhobo zangaphandle

Iziko leLizwe kuPhando lweengxaki zokulala
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/about/ncsdr/

IZiko leLizwe leZiphazamiso ze-Neurological and Stroke
http://www.ninds.nih.gov/

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Inkcukacha ezithe vetshe

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