Isiseko senethiwekhi: I-TCP / IP Protocol Suite

I-TCP / IP, umthetho olandelwayo eyakhelwe i-Intanethi, ayisiyiyo enye iprotocol kodwa endaweni yoko iyinkqubo epheleleyo yeeprotokholi ezinxulumene noko. I-TCP indala kakhulu kune-Ethernet. Yaqala ukukhulelwa ngo-1969 liSebe lezoKhuselo. Okwangoku, i-Internet Engineering Task Force, okanye i-IETF, ilawula inkqubo ye-TCP / IP.

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I-suite ye-TCP / ye-IP isekwe kwimodeli yomaleko amane yenethiwekhi efanayo nemodeli yosixhenxe yeOSI. Umzekeliso olandelayo ubonakalisa indlela imodeli ye-TCP / IP ehambelana ngayo nemodeli ye-OSI kwaye apho ezinye zeenkqubo eziphambili ze-TCP / IP zingena khona kwimodeli.



Njengoko ubona, ungqimba olusezantsi lwemodeli, umaleko woNxibelelwano lwenethiwekhi, uhambelana nemaleko ye-OSI yomzimba kunye neLink yeDatha. I-TCP / i-IP inokuqhuba ngaphezulu kweendlela ezahlukeneyo zomgaqo-nkqubo womnatha womnatha, kubandakanya i-Ethernet, kunye nezinye iiprothokholi, ezinje ngeToken Ring kunye ne-FDDI (imigangatho emidala yenethiwekhi ye-fiber-optic).



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Uluhlu lwesicelo semodeli ye-TCP / IP luhambelana neziqendu ezintathu ezingaphezulu zemodeli ye-OSI-Oko kukuthi, iSeshoni, iNgcaciso, kunye neelekisi zesicelo. Iinkqubo ezininzi zinokusetyenziswa kweli nqanaba. Ezimbalwa zezona zidume kakhulu yi-HTTP, FTP, Telnet, SMTP, DNS, kunye ne-SNMP.



IP

IP, emele iProtokholi ye-Intanethi, ngumgaqo olandelwayo wothungelwano olunoxanduva lokuhambisa iipakethi kwizixhobo zenethiwekhi. Umgaqo-nkqubo we-IP usebenzisa iidilesi ze-IP ezinengqiqo ukubhekisa kwizixhobo ezizodwa endaweni yeedilesi zomzimba (MAC). Umgaqo olandelwayo obizwa ngokuba yi-ARP (weNkqubo yokuSombulula iiDilesi) ujongana nomsebenzi wokuguqula iidilesi ze-IP zibe ziidilesi ze-MAC.

Ngenxa yokuba iidilesi ze-IP zinenxalenye yenethiwekhi kunye nenxalenye yokubamba, i-IP yi Umgaqo olandelwayo. Ngenxa yoko, i-IP ingadlulisela ipakethi kwenye inethiwekhi ukuba umphathi akakho kwinethiwekhi yangoku. (Isakhono sokuhambisa iipakethi kuthungelwano apho i-IP ifumana igama layo Intanethi luluhlu lweendlela ezimbini okanye ezingaphezulu zonxibelelwano ze-TCP / IP ezinokufikelelwa ngokuhamba.)

TCP

I-TCP, emele iProtokholi yoLawulo loThutho, yiprotocol yendlela yothutho ejolise kunxibelelwano. I-TCP ivumela isixhobo ukuba sithumele ngokuthembekileyo ipakethi kwesinye isixhobo kwinethiwekhi efanayo okanye kwinethiwekhi eyahlukileyo.



I-TCP iqinisekisa ukuba ipakethi nganye ihanjiswa ukuba kunokwenzeka. Ikwenza oko ngokumisela unxibelelwano ngesixhobo sokufumana kunye nokuthumela iipakethi. Ukuba ipakethi ayifiki, i-TCP iyigcina kwakhona ipakethi. Unxibelelwano luvaliwe kuphela emva kokuba ipakethi ihanjiswe ngempumelelo okanye imeko yempazamo engafumanekiyo yenzekile.

Inqaku elinye eliphambili le-TCP kukuba lihlala lisetyenziselwa unxibelelwano lomntu omnye. Ngamanye amagama, i-TCP ivumela isixhobo esinye senethiwekhi ukuba sitshintshe idatha kunye nesixhobo esinye senethiwekhi. I-TCP ayisetyenziswanga ukusasaza imiyalezo kubamkeli abaninzi benethiwekhi. Endaweni yoko, iProtokholi yeDatha yomsebenzisi (UDP) isetyenziselwa loo njongo.

Iiprotokholi ezininzi ezaziwayo zesicelo zixhomekeke kwi-TCP. Umzekelo, xa isikhangeli sewebhu sicela iphepha, isikhangeli sisebenzisa i-HTTP ukuthumela isicelo nge-TCP kwiserver yewebhu. Xa iseva yewebhu ifumana isicelo, isebenzisa i-HTTP ukuzalisekisa isicelo, kwakhona nge-TCP. Ezinye iinkqubo zomaleko wesicelo ezisebenzisa i-TCP zibandakanya i-Telnet (yesiphelo sendlela), i-FTP (yotshintshiselwano ngefayile), kunye ne-SMTP (ye-imeyile).