Iindlela ezi-6 zokuSilela kweNdlela yokuSilela koHlahlelo

NguCraig Gygi, uBruce Williams, uNeil DeCarlo, uStephen R. Covey

ibomvu ebomvu kwikona yamehlo

Ukusilela kwimowudi yohlalutyo (I-FMEA) sisixhobo onokuthi usisebenzise kwi-Six Sigma yokulinganisa kunye nokubeka phambili umngcipheko kwinkqubo, kwimveliso, okanye kwinkqubo emva koko ulandele amanyathelo okunciphisa umngcipheko. Ixabisekile njengendlela yokuchonga nokubeka phambili ukuba yeyiphi imiba ebalulekileyo ekufuneka ujongane nayo ukuphucula inkqubo kwiprojekthi yakho ye-DMAIC. Kukwalungile ekuphuhliseni nasekuqhubeni izicwangciso zokuphucula ezinxulumene nazo.



I-FMEA luluhlu lweenkqubo zenkqubo, kunye nenyathelo ngalinye elinokubakho Iindlela zokungaphumeleli (iindlela apho inyathelo lenkqubo linokuhamba gwenxa okanye lingazivezi iziphumo zalo ezinqwenelekayo / ezifunekayo); Iziphumo ezinxulumene noko kunye noonobangela; kaninzi kangakanani oonobangela bakhona; kwaye zilawulwa njani, kuthintelwa njani okanye kufunyanwa njani oonobangela. Ijongeka ngathi yitafile enkulu.

Imigca kwitafile ye-FMEA ihambelana namanyathelo enkqubo oyijongayo. Njengoko ufunda ukusuka ekhohlo ukuya ekunene etafileni, utshintsha ukusuka kudweliso lwenkqubo ukuya kwinyathelo elinokubakho lokusilela kweendlela, iziphumo ezinokubakho, izizathu ezinokubangela, kunye nokufunyanwa kwangoku okanye ulawulo lothintelo.

Kumqolo ngamnye, ubonelela ngenqaku lobukrakra besiphumo, ubuninzi bokwenzeka kwesizathu, kunye nokusebenza kolawulo lwangoku ukufumana okanye ukuthintela unobangela. Imveliso yala manqaku idala inombolo ephambili yomngcipheko (RPN).



Kwiprojekthi ye-Six Sigma DMAIC, kuya kufuneka uqale i-FMEA emva kokuba uyichazile iprojekthi kwaye unolwazi lokuqala lwenkqubo yangoku. Umzamo osebenzayo we-FMEA awuzami ukuqala kwisilayidi esingenanto. Endaweni yoko, ixhomekeke kakhulu ekugqityweni kwangaphambili kwemephu yenkqubo yelizwe langoku.

Ezinye izixhobo onokuzondla kwi-FMEA zibandakanya idatha yokusebenza ehlanganisiweyo evela kwinkqubo, imizobo yentlanzi ebonisa uluhlu lweenkqubo ezinokubakho, imiyalelo yenkqubo esele ikho okanye imigangatho, njalo njalo.

Nangona ukuhamba kwe-FMEA kuthe tye, ukusebenza kwendlela kulele ngokulandela ngokungqongqo izikhokelo zento nganye eneenkcukacha ngokulandelelana.



Inkqubo yamanyathelo

Usebenzisa imephu yokuhamba yenkqubo egqityiweyo ngaphambili, dwelisa inkqubo nganye inyathelo okanye isenzo kwikholamu ye-FMEA enesihloko esithi Amanyathelo enkqubo okanye imisebenzi yeMveliso.

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Ukujonga ukuba ukwindlela elungileyo kunye noluhlu lwenyathelo lenkqubo yakho, jonga kulwakhiwo lwegrama yamanyathelo; Inkqubo nganye edwelisiweyo yenkcazo yenyathelo kufuneka iqale ngesenzi kwaye iphele ngento: Umatshini ngaphandle kwedayimani yenxalenye, Faka idilesi yomthengi, njalo njalo. Sebenzisa isenzi-into kwitshekhi yegrama kuyanceda ukuba uqiniseke ukuba amanyathelo akho enkqubo ayigranular ngokwaneleyo ukufumanisa ubungozi.

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Cofa ukuze ujonge ngakumbi kwiphepha lokusebenzela. (PDF)

Ukuba wenza i-FMEA egxile ekusebenzeni kwemveliso egqityiweyo kunokwenziwa kwenkqubo, vele udwelise imisebenzi nganye efunekayo endaweni yamanyathelo enkqubo.

Chonga iimfuno kwaye urekhode iindlela ezinokusilela

Kwinyathelo ngalinye lenkqubo, kufuneka uqale ucinge ngeemfuno zayo. Ukuchonga iimfuno zenkqubo yenyathelo eliphakathi ekuchongeni ngokuchanekileyo nangokucacileyo iindlela ezinokuthi zisilele zenyathelo. Inkqubo ye- r ngu Imirhumo ziikhrayitheriya ezongezelelweyo ezichaza impumelelo yokwenziwa kwenyathelo.

Kwi-pizza odola ngokuthatha umzekelo, inyathelo lokuqala nguPhendula ifowuni. Yintoni imfuneko yeli nyathelo? Umqeshwa angayiphendula umnxeba emva kokukhala kwemizuzu emihlanu, kodwa elo alilo nqanaba lenkonzo yabathengi indawo yokutyela eyenzelayo. Imfuno ke ngoko inokuba kukuphendula umnxeba ngaphambi kwering yesihlanu.

Unemfuno yenkqubo yenyathelo engqondweni, emva koko uzibuze ukuba zeziphi iindlela ezinokusilela; yintoni eyenza ukusilela ukuhlangabezana nemfuno? Kwimfuno yokuphendula ifowuni ngaphambi kweringi yesihlanu, imo yokusilela kukuphendula okanye emva kwering yesihlanu.

Qaphela ukuba ungaphazanyiswa ziimowudi zokungaphumeleli ezingahambelani nemfuno yenkqubo yoluhlu lwakho. Umzekelo, imo yokusilela yomnxeba wesandi esemgangathweni iphantsi kunokuba semthethweni, kodwa ayihambelani kwaphela neMpendulo ngaphakathi kwemfuno zeringi ezintlanu. Ezi ezinye iimfuno ziya kufakwa ngokufanelekileyo kwaye zichazwe kwelinye icandelo le-FMEA yakho.

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Iziphumo zokusilela

Inyathelo elilandelayo kwi-FMEA kukudwelisa iziphumo ezinokubakho-ewe, zininzi iziphumo - kwimo nganye yokusilela echongiweyo. Dwelisa ngokulula isiphumo ngasinye kwiseli enye yetafile ye-FMEA, ukwahlula isiphumo ngasinye umntu ene- + okanye i &.

Ukunceda ucinge ngeziphumo, jonga izinto ezimbini kwimowudi yokusilela: Okokuqala, cinga ngendlela imo yokusilela enokuthi ichaphazele ngayo ukuhamba kwenkqubo kunye nabathengi bangaphakathi; Okwesibini, cinga ngendlela imo yokusilela enokuthi ibachaphazele ngayo abathengi bokugqibela benkqubo. Ngokukhawuleza, ungena kwi-groove kwaye unokukhawuleza wenze uluhlu olubanzi lweziphumo ezinokubakho.

Ubunzima beziphumo

Ukujonga uluhlu lwakho lwezinto ezinokubakho, kuya kufuneka uchonge ukuba ingaba zingakanani iimpembelelo kwimodi yokusilela echongiweyo. Usebenzisa isikali esi-1 ukuya kwali-10, isi-10 sibe yeyona mpembelelo imbi kwaye isi-1 sibe sesona sincinci.

Ikholamu yokuqala ibonisa amanqaku amanani; Ikholamu yesibini yinkcazo yomlomo yamanqanaba aqhelekileyo kumgangatho wobukrakra ovela kwiQela eliSebenza ngeZithuthi (AIAG), kwaye ikholamu yesithathu iguqulela olo lwimi lwe-AIAG kwisigama esisebenza ngakumbi, esigxile kubathengi.

Uluhlu oludibeneyo lweziphumo kumzekelo wepitsa, iqela le-FMEA kufuneka linike amanqaku kwisiphumo ngasinye esidwelisiweyo kwaye sinike amanqaku obukhali ngokubanzi ngokusekwe kwisiphumo esibi kakhulu somntu ngamnye.