Ithiyori yomtya kunye noQinisekiso lweLizwe

Ngu-Andrew Zimmerman Jones, uDaniel Robbins

Nangona sisazi ngaphezulu kunakuqala malunga nezinto ezenza amazulu, indawo emnyama phakathi kweenkwenkwezi isabambe iimfihlakalo ezininzi- kunye nomxholo wentsontelo usentliziyweni yokukhangela iimpendulo kwezininzi zezi mfihlakalo.

Ngokuchasene ne-big bang theory, uFred Hoyle ucebise enye ithiyori, ebizwa ngokuba yi ithiyori yaseburhulumenteni . Kule ngcamango, iinqununu ezintsha zaqhubeka zenziwa. Njengoko isithuba sisandiswa, la masuntswana amatsha adalwa ngokukhawuleza ngokwaneleyo ukuba uxinano lobunzima kwindalo iphela luhlala luhleli.



Ukuqonda isizathu salethiyori, kuya kufuneka uqaphele ukuba bambalwa oososayensi abacinga ukuba inokwenzeka ukuba ibhola eshinyeneyo inokuvela ngaphandle kwendawo, isaphula umthetho wolondolozo lobunzima (okanye ulondolozo lwamandla amakhulu). Lo mbandela kwafuneka uvele kwenye indawo.

Ngokombono kaHoyle, ukuba umcimbi unokudalwa ngaphandle kwento ngaxeshanye, kutheni kungenakwenzeka oko ngalo lonke ixesha?

Nangona u-Hoyle u-state of steady state theory wayeza kusilela ekugqibeleni, ekuzameni ukungqina ukuba u-Hoyle wayeza kuzingqina efanelekile emehlweni wembali ngokuphuhlisa ithiyori malunga nokuba zivela phi i-atom ezixineneyo zendalo iphela yethu.

Omnye wabona bantu baguqukele kwimbono ye-big bang yayingu-physicist uGeorge Gamow, owaqonda ukuba ukuba le nyani iyinyani, intsalela ye-cosmic microwave background radiation (i-CMBR) iyakusasazeka kwindalo iphela. Imizamo yokufumana le radiation ayiphumelelanga iminyaka emininzi, de kwaba yingxaki engalindelekanga ngo-1965 ngengozi eyifumeneyo.

UGamow waziwa kwabaninzi njengombhali weencwadi ezininzi ezithandwayo kwezenzululwazi, kodwa wayekwangumbhali wezobugcisa kunye novavanyo owayekuthanda ukulahla izimvo ngasekunene nangasekhohlo, kubonakala ngathi akakhathali nokuba zivelisa iziqhamo.

Ukuguqula ingqwalaselo yakhe kwi cosmology kunye ne-big bang, uGamow waphawula ngo-1948 ukuba le bhola inkulu yemicimbi (mhlawumbi i-neutron, waqikelela) yayiza kukhupha imitha yomzimba omnyama, eyayisetyenzwe ngo-1900 nguMax Planck. Umzimba omnyama ukhupha imitha kubude obuchaziweyo ngokusekwe kubushushu.

Abafundi ababini bakaGamow, uRalph Alpher noRobert Herman, bapapasha iphepha ngo-1948 elinobalo lobushushu, kwaye ngenxa yoko imitha, yale bhola yokuqala yento. Amadoda abala ubushushu bube malunga ne-5 degrees ngaphezulu kwe-zero ngokupheleleyo. Le radiation ikuluhlu lwe-microwave ye-electromagnetic spectrum, ke ibizwa ngokuba yi I-cosmic microwave yangasemva kwimitha (i-CMBR).

Ngo-1965, iqela leYunivesithi yasePrinceton elalikhokelwa nguRobert Dicke lalizimele ngokwalo kwaye lalizama ukulivavanya. Iqela likaDicke lisilele ukufumanisa i-CMBR, nangona kunjalo, kuba ngelixa babeka izinto zokugqibela kwizixhobo zabo, omnye umntu wababetha kuyo.

Kwiimayile ezimbalwa kude, kwiLebhu yaseLebhu yaseLebhu iHolmdell iHorn Telescope, uArno Penzias noRobert Wilson babeneengxaki ezizezabo. Iteleskopu yabo - eyayintsonkothile kunePrinceton University's - yayichola le static yoyikekayo xa bezama ukufumana imiqondiso kanomathotholo emajukujukwini.

Ngethamsanqa, uPenzias noDicke babenomhlobo omnye kwisazi ngeenkwenkwezi uBernard Burke, kwaye wathi wakufumanisa iingxaki abanazo la madoda mabini, wabazisa. UPenzias noWilson bafumana ibhaso likaNobel kwiFizikiki ngo-1978 ngengozi yokufumanisa i-CMBR (kubushushu obungu-2.7 degrees ngaphezulu kwe-zero ngokupheleleyo - izibalo zikaGamow zaziphezulu kancinci).

Iminyaka engamashumi amane yophando iqinisekisile kuphela ithiyori ye-big bang, kutsha nje kumfanekiso we-CMBR ofunyenwe yi-Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite.

Umfanekiso ofunyenwe yile satellite, uboniswe apha, ufana nomfanekiso womntwana wendalo iphela xa wayeneminyaka nje engama-380,000 ubudala (iminyaka eyi-13.7 yezigidigidi eyadlulayo). Ngaphambi koku, indalo iphela yayixinene ngokwaneleyo ukuba ingabonakali, ngenxa yoko akukho kukhanya kunokusetyenziselwa ukujonga ngasemva kunoko.

Ngokunyanisekileyo kwe-NASANgokunyanisekileyo kwe-NASA

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya kwi-WMAP satellite, jonga igosa Indawo yeWMAP kwiziko leenqwelo moya leNASA iGoddard.