Umhlaza wamatyhalarha

Umhlaza wamatyhalarha

By Uhlaziyo lweMedia; Ukuhlaziywa ngu-Varixcare.cz. Igqityelwe ukuhlaziywa nge-25 kaFebruwari 2020.

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Ukupapashwa kwezeMpilo eHarvard

Umhlaza wamatyhalarha kukukhula okungalawulwayo kweeseli ezingaqhelekanga kwelinye okanye kumatyhalarha omabini. Amasende ngamadlala esini samadoda. Zibekwe kwisikram, ngasemva kwelungu lobudoda. Bavelisa testosterone kunye nezinye iihomoni zesilisa. Amasende avelisa kwaye agcine isidoda, iiseli zamadoda ezifunekayo ekuveliseni.

Umhlaza wamatyhalarha uyakhula, unokuhlala ngaphakathi kwetyhalarha, okanye unokusasazeka kwii-lymph nodes esiswini okanye esinqeni. Ukuba ayibhaqwanga kwaye ayinyangwa, umhlaza wamatyhalarha ekugqibeleni unganwenwela emiphungeni, kwingqondo, esibindini nakwamanye amalungu omzimba. Iindidi ezithile zomhlaza wamatyhalarha zisenokwenzeka ukuba zisasazeke kunezinye. Ngamanye amaxesha umhlaza uya kube sele usasazekile ngexesha lokuqala lokuchongwa.



Uninzi lwezigulana ezinomhlaza wamatyhalarha ziphakathi kweminyaka engama-20 nama-40. Nangona umhlaza wamatyhalarha ubala ipesenti encinci kakhulu kuwo onke amatyala omhlaza emadodeni, ngowona mhlaza uxhaphakileyo emadodeni amancinci.

Umhlaza wamatyhalarha uxhaphake kakhulu kumadoda amhlophe kunamadoda amnyama. Amadoda awayenetyhalarha elingafunekiyo njengeentsana anobungozi obonyukayo bomhlaza wamatyhalarha. (Ityhalarha elingafunekiyo lelo lihlala esiswini okanye endaweni yokuncwina endaweni yokuhamba ngesiqhelo kwisirhashalala ngaphambi okanye kungekudala emva kokuzalwa.) Amadoda anomhlaza kumatyhalarha anobungozi obuncinci bokukhula kwelinye, nokuba kungenjalo babenetyhalarha elingafunekiyo.

Amanye amadoda nawo asengozini yokwanda komhlaza wamatyhalarha, kubandakanya amadoda anaso

  • izalamane ezisondeleyo ezinomhlaza wamatyhalarha

  • ityhalarha elingaphuhliswanga

  • kwafunyaniswa ukuba une-HIV

  • iimeko ezithile zemfuza, ezinjenge-Down syndrome okanye i-Klinefelter's syndrome.

Ezinye iingcali zicinga ukuba ezi meko zikwandisa umngcipheko:

  • uqwilikana usuleleko kumatyhalarha

  • ukubonakaliswa koomama kwi-diethylstilbestrol (DES), ichiza ebelimiselwe ngaphambili ukunceda ukunyanga isicaphucaphu kunye nokugabha ngexesha lokukhulelwa

  • ukubonakaliswa kwiAgent Orange.

Ngamanye amaxesha, umhlaza wamatyhalarha ufunyanwa xa indoda ivavanyelwa ukungachumi.

Ezona ntlobo zimbini zamathumba wamatyhalarha ziintshulube zeseli zentsholongwane kunye nezidumba zezicubu ezixhasayo, okanye izicwili zomtya. Phantse yonke imihlaza yamatyhalarha iqala kwiiseli zentsholongwane. Ezi ziiseli ezenza isidoda.

Zimbini iintlobo zamathumba eseli yintsholongwane: iiseminomas kunye nee-non-seminomas. Iisemina zidla ngokukhula kancinci. Le mihlaza ihlala ihlala phakathi kwamasende ixesha elide ngaphandle kokunwenwa.

Iifom ezingezo-seminomas kwiiseli zentsholongwane ezivuthiweyo. Ziyakwazi ukusasazeka, ngakumbi kwii-lymph node. Iilymph node zizinto ezimile njengeembotyi emzimbeni wonke ezivelisa kwaye zigcine iiseli ezilwa nosulelo. Ii-non-seminomas zinokusasazeka ngokuhamba kwegazi kwamanye amalungu, anje ngemiphunga, isibindi okanye ingqondo.

Ipesenti encinci yomhlaza wamatyhalarha ngamathumba ezihlunu ezixhasayo. Baqala kwizicubu ezixhasa amasende. Ezi zomhlaza zibizwa ngokuba zii-Sertoli cell tumors kunye ne-Leydig cell tumors.

Iimpawu

Rhoqo, amadoda aqaphela ukudumba okungenantlungu okanye ukuqina kwamatyhalarha. Kunganzima kwelinye icala, kodwa hayi kwelinye. Ngamanye amaxesha, amadoda aqaphela iqhuma elibuhlungu kwisikram.

Amadoda nawo anokuqaphela ukwandiswa kwebele (ebizwa ngokuba yi-gynecomastia). Rhoqo, ulwelo olunobisi lunokuphuma kwingono. Ezi mpawu zimbini zinokwenzeka kwiintlobo ezithile zomhlaza wamatyhalarha. Ithumba linokukhupha iihormoni ezikhuthaza ukukhula kwethishu yamabele kunye nokuguqula imveliso yesiqhelo yamadoda.

Iimpawu ezixhaphakileyo zibandakanya

  • iqhuma entanyeni

  • umqolo obuhlungu ongapheliyo

    5 htp nge-st john's wort
  • ukuqhawukelwa ngumphefumlo

  • ukhohlela igazi

  • iqhuma lebele

  • amadlala adumbileyo emazantsi entamo.

Ezi zimpawu zixhaphake kakhulu zihlala zivela emva kokuba umhlaza usasazekile kwamanye amalungu omzimba.

Uxilongo

Ugqirha wakho uya kubuza xa uqala ukubona iimpawu nokuba zibuhlungu ngokuhamba kwexesha. Uya kuvavanya ityhalarha kwaye azive ukudumba kwee-lymph node. Xelela ugqirha wakho ukuba ubunetende elingafunekiyo xa uzalwa.

Ugqirha wakho unokukrokrela ukuba unomdlavuza wamatyhalarha ngokusekwe kwiimpawu zakho okanye iziphumo ngexesha lovavanyo lomzimba, njengeqhuma elilukhuni okanye indawo yesisa. Ukumisela ukuba ngaba iqhuma elithambileyo liqinile okanye ligcwele ulwelo, ugqirha wakho angakhanyisa isibane esincinci kwisibane ukubona ukuba ukukhanya kuhamba ngayo.

Umhlaza wamatyhalarha

Uvavanyo lomzimba lunokulandelwa ngu

  • i-ultrasound, enokusetyenziselwa ukukhangela ubunzima okanye ulwelo olugqithisileyo ngaphakathi kwamatyhalarha.

  • imaging resonance imaging (MRI) okanye ikhompyuter ye-tomography (CT), esebenzisa imihlaba yamagnetic okanye i-x-ray ukwenza imifanekiso yesisu. Ugqirha wakho uya kujonga imifanekiso yobunzima obungaqhelekanga kunye ne-lymph node ezandisiweyo.

  • i-x-ray esifubeni, ukubona ukuba umhlaza usasazekile na ukuya emiphungeni.

Ukuba ugqirha wakho ukrokrela ukuba ityhalarha liguqukile laza lajija ukunikezelwa kwegazi (ityhalarha yamatyhalarha), uhlobo olukhethekileyo lokuskena ngemifanekiso lunokwenziwa ngokukhawuleza.

Eyona ndlela yokuqinisekisa ukuxilongwa komhlaza wamatyhalarha kukususa ityhalarha. Le nkqubo ibizwa ngokuba yi-orchiectomy. Amatyhalarha aya kuvavanywa elebhu ukufumanisa ukuba umhlaza ukhona na, kwaye ukuba kunjalo, luhlobo luni. Uvavanyo lwegazi luyakwenziwa ukulinganisa amanqanaba eproteni yokumakisha ithumba. Oku kubandakanya

  • ialpha-fetoprotein (AFP)

  • beta-chorionic gonadotropin (beta- hCG )

  • I-lactic dehydrogenase (LDH).

  • i-alkaline phosphatase ye-alkaline

Ixesha elilindelekileyo

Kumadoda amaninzi, umhlaza wamatyhalarha ukhula kancinci kwaye unokuhlala ungafunyanwa kangangeminyaka. Rhoqo, umhlaza wamatyhalarha ukhula ngokukhawuleza kwaye ufuna unyango kwangoko.

Njengayo yonke imihlaza, umhlaza wamatyhalarha uya kuqhubeka nokukhula kwaye usasazeke de unyangwe.

Uthintelo

Akukho ndlela yokuthintela iimeko ezininzi zomhlaza wamatyhalarha.

Amadoda awayenetyhalarha elingafunekiyo ekuzalweni kufuneka abekwe iliso rhoqo kwiimpawu zokuqala zomhlaza. Uninzi loogqirha babantwana lucebisa ukuba kwenziwe utyando ukuze kuthotywe ityhalarha engalindelwanga kwisingxobo samatyhalarha besebancinci kakhulu. Ukuba ityhalarha ayikhange iqale nokuhla kwayo kwi-scrotum, abanye oogqirha babantwana bacebisa ukuba lisuswe. Ezi 'mvavanyo zesisu' kunokwenzeka ukuba zibe nomhlaza ekuhambeni kwexesha.

Unyango

Unyango luxhomekeke kwimpilo yonke yesigulana, uhlobo lomhlaza wamatyhalarha, kunye nenqanaba lawo, umlinganiso wokuba umhlaza usasazeke kangakanani. Amanqanaba omhlaza wamatyhalarha aba

  • Inqanaba I. Umhlaza ufumaneka kuphela kumatyhalarha.

  • Inqanaba II. Umhlaza usasazeke kwii-lymph node ezikufuphi esiswini okanye kwi-pelvis.

  • Inqanaba III. Umhlaza unwenwele emiphungeni, kwingqondo, esibindini, okanye kwamanye amalungu omzimba. Okanye, umhlaza usasazekile kwii-lymph node ezikufuphi kunye namanqanaba eproteni yokumakisha amathumba egazini aphezulu kakhulu.

  • Qho. Umhlaza ubuyile emva konyango.

Unyango lwazo zonke iintlobo kunye nezigaba zomhlaza wamatyhalarha kukususa ityhalarha. Ngethuba lale nkqubo, ugqirha osusa ugqirha ususa ityhalarha ngokusika kwimbungu. Zombini ngaphambi kotyando kunye neeveki ezimbalwa emva koko, kuya kwenziwa uvavanyo lwegazi ukulinganisa amanqanaba okuphawula ithumba. Amanye amadoda aya kufuna utyando olongezelelekileyo ukuze abone ukuba umhlaza usasazekile na kwii-lymph node esiswini okanye esinqeni.

Emva kotyando, unyango lomhlaza wamatyhalarha luxhomekeke kwinqanaba lomhlaza. Amanye amadoda aya kufuna ukubeka iliso rhoqo. Oku kubizwa ngokuba liliso elisebenzayo. Kunyanzelekile ukuba isiguli sibuye rhoqo rhoqo ukuba le ndlela iyasetyenziswa.

Nangona kunjalo, uninzi lwamadoda luya kufuna unyango olongezelelekileyo, olufana nemitha okanye iichemotherapy. Imitha ingabhekiswa kwii-lymph node ukutshabalalisa naziphi na iisuntswana zomhlaza ezingabonakaliyo. Unyango ngemitha luhlala lusetyenziswa kunyango lweesemina.

I-Chemotherapy isetyenziswa xa umhlaza usasazeke ngaphaya kwamatyhalarha. Inokukunceda ukugcina umhlaza ungabuyi. Ngokwesiqhelo iisemina azidingi ikhemotherapy. Kodwa inokusetyenziswa kwiimeko ezizodwa.

Ngokubanzi, abaguli abaneeseminomas bahlala befumana unyango ngemitha. Unyango ngemitha alusebenzi nakwizigulana ezingenazo iiseminomas. Endaweni yoko, bathambekele ekubeni benze utyando lokususa abantu abanesifo somhlaza emva kokuba kususwe ityhalarha kunye nekhemotherapy.

Emva konyango, iimviwo zokulandela rhoqo zibalulekile ukuqinisekisa ukuba umhlaza uhambile. Kwiminyaka emibini yokuqala, indoda ihlolwa inyanga nganye ukuya kwiinyanga ezimbini. Uvavanyo lwegazi, i-x-ray kunye ne-CT scans nazo ziyenziwa. Emva koko, iimviwo zomzimba kunye novavanyo lwegazi lwenziwa kancinci kancinci, kunye ne-x-ray eyenzeka kube kanye okanye kabini ngonyaka.

Ukuphonononga unyango lwakho kunye nengcali kunyango lomhlaza wamatyhalarha. Qiniseka ukuba uyaluqonda lonke ukhetho ngaphambi kokwenza isigqibo sonyango.

Nini ukubiza iNgcali

Nxibelelana nogqirha wakho ukuba ufumene isigaxa kumatyhalarha amabini okanye omabini okanye kwisingxobo samatyhalarha. Kuya kufuneka uphinde ubize ugqirha wakho ukuba ukhula nentlungu engapheliyo okanye ukudumba kwetyhalarha. Kuya kufuneka wazise nengcali ukuba uphuhlisa nakuphi na ukwanda kwebele okanye ukhuphe incindi kwingono.

Kuba umhlaza wamatyhalarha unqabile, oogqirha abaninzi abanakuze basinyange isigulana esinesi sifo. Yiyo loo nto izigulana ezifunyaniswe zinomhlaza wamatyhalarha kufuneka zinyangwe kwiziko lomhlaza elikhulu apho abasebenzi banengcali yokuvavanya nokukhathalela amadoda anale meko. Oogqirha abasebenzisa i-chemotherapy kunye / okanye i-radiation ukunyanga umhlaza wamatyhalarha bafuna izakhono ezikhethekileyo kunye nolwazi lokunyanga esi sifo ngokukhuselekileyo nangempumelelo. Amava abalwa.

Ukuxela kwangaphambili

Umhlaza wamatyhalarha unganyangeka ukuba ufunyaniswe wanyangwa kwangethuba. Nangona kunjalo, lo mhlaza usasazeka ngokuthe cwaka nangokukhawuleza. Oku kuthetha ukuba amanye amadoda awazukuchongwa de isifo sibe kwinqanaba eliphezulu.

Ngexesha elinye, umhlaza wamatyhalarha wawungenakunyangeka ukuba wawunwenwe ngaphaya kwamatyhalarha. Ngoku, umhlaza wamatyhalarha ngowona mhlaza uphilisayo. Iichemotherapies zanamhlanje zinokuncipha kwaye ziphelise iiseli zomhlaza ezisasazeke kwezinye iindawo zomzimba.

Uninzi lwamadoda anomdlavuza wamatyhalarha ane-prognosis ebalaseleyo. Amadoda aneSigaba se-I isifo kunokwenzeka ukuba aphiliswe ngotyando kunye nonyango lwemitha. Amadoda anesifo seSigaba II anesifo esilungileyo kakhulu emva kokuhlinzwa kunye ne-radiation okanye i-chemotherapy. Nditsho namadoda anezona meko zihambele phambili anokuxelwa kwangaphambili: Ngaphezu kwesiqingatha sabo baya kuphila kwiminyaka emihlanu kamva.

Abantu abaphilisiwe kumhlaza wamatyhalarha obandakanya ityhalarha elinye banomngcipheko omncinci wokuba nomhlaza kwelinye ityhalarha ngaxa lithile ebomini babo. Kukho ukubakho kwengxaki yexesha elide yechemotherapy kunye nemitha. Ziyakwenzeka iminyaka emininzi emva kokuba umhlaza uphathwe. Oku kubandakanya ukonakala kwemithambo-luvo, izintso nentliziyo. Ukungaqheleki kwegazi, kubandakanya i-leukemia nako kunokwenzeka kwiminyaka emva konyango. Ukuphulukana nokuva kunokwenzeka.

Ukuba izigulana ziye zanyangwa nge-radiation okanye i-chemotherapy, ziya kudinga ukulandelwa ubomi bonke ukuze zikwazi ukukhula ezi ngxaki.

Iinkcukacha ezongezelelweyo

IZiko leSizwe loMhlaza (NCI)
https://www.cancer.gov/

Umbutho woMhlaza waseMelika (ACS)
https://www.cancer.org/


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