Yintoni iNkqubo yokuSebenza?

NguJohn Paul Mueller

I-canine coronavirus vaccine vanguard

Inkqubo yokusebenza ineenjongo ezahlukeneyo kunye neendlela ezahlukeneyo kunezinye iiparadigms ezisetyenziswayo. Iinjongo zichaza ukuba yintoni ipradigm esebenzayo yenkqubo yokuzama ukwenza iindlela ezisetyenziswa ziilwimi ezixhasayo. Nangona kunjalo, iinjongo azichazi ukuphunyezwa okuthile; ukwenza oko kuhambelana nolwimi ngalunye.



Umahluko ophambili phakathi kwenkqubo esebenzayo yeparadigm kunye nezinye iiparadigms kukuba iinkqubo ezisebenzayo zisebenzisa imisebenzi yezibalo endaweni yeengxelo zokuvakalisa izimvo. Lo mahluko uthetha ukuba kunokuba ubhale iseti echanekileyo yamanyathelo okusombulula ingxaki, usebenzisa imisebenzi yezibalo, kwaye awuzikhathazi ngendlela ulwimi oluwenza ngayo umsebenzi. Ngandlela thile, oku kwenza ukuba iilwimi ezixhasa ukusebenza kwenkqubo yeparadigm efanayo nezicelo ezinje ngeMATLAB.



Inkqubo esebenzayo

Ewe, nge-MATLAB, ufumana ujongano lomsebenzisi, olucutha ijika lokufunda. Nangona kunjalo, ubhatalela uncedo lomsebenzisi kunye nelahleko yamandla kunye nokuguquguquka, ezifumaneka kwiilwimi ezisebenzayo. Sebenzisa le ndlela ekuchazeni ingxaki kuxhomekeke kwi Inkqubo yokwazisa isitayile, osibona sisetyenziswa kunye nezinye iiparadigms kunye neelwimi, ezinje ngeLwimi eliCwangcisiweyo loMbuzo (SQL) kulawulo lwedatha.



Ngokuchasene nezinye iiparadigms, inkqubo esebenzayo yeparadigm ayigcini imeko. Ukusetyenziswa kwe imeko yenza ukuba ulandele amaxabiso phakathi kweefowuni zomsebenzi. Ezinye iiparadigms zisebenzisa ilizwe ukuvelisa iziphumo ezahlukileyo ngokusekwe kwindalo esingqongileyo, njengokumisela inani lezinto esele zikho kunye nokwenza into eyahlukileyo xa inani lezinto linguziro. Ngenxa yoko, ukubiza ukusebenza kwenkqubo yokusebenza kuhlala kuvelisa iziphumo ezifanayo zinikwe iseti ethile yegalelo, ngaloo ndlela kusenziwa iinkqubo ezisebenzayo ukuba ziqikeleleke ngakumbi kunalezo zixhasa urhulumente.

Ngenxa yokuba iinkqubo ezisebenzayo azigcini urhulumente, idatha abasebenza nayo ikwayiyo ayiguquki, oko kuthetha ukuba awukwazi ukutshintsha. Ukutshintsha ixabiso eliguqukayo, kufuneka wenze umahluko omtsha. Kwakhona, oku kwenza ukuba iinkqubo ezisebenzayo ziqikeleleke kunezinye iindlela kwaye zinokwenza ukuba iinkqubo ezisebenzayo zisebenze ngokulula kwiinkqubo ezininzi. Qhubeka ufunda ngolwazi olongezelelweyo malunga nendlela esebenza ngayo iparadigm yenkqubo.

Ukuqonda iinjongo zenkqubo yokusebenza

Inkqubo engxamisekileyo, uhlobo lwenkqubo uninzi lwabaphuhlisi olwenzileyo kude kube ngoku, lufana nomgca wendibano, apho idatha ihamba ngothotho lwamanyathelo ngolandelelwano oluthile ukuvelisa iziphumo ezithile. Inkqubo izinzile kwaye iqinile, kwaye umntu ophumeza inkqubo makakhe umgca wendibano entsha ngalo lonke ixesha isicelo sifuna iziphumo ezintsha. Inkqubo ejolise kwinto (i-OOP) imodareyitha kwaye ifihle amanyathelo, kodwa isiseko separadigm sinye. Ngaphandle kokumodareyitha, i-OOP ihlala ingakuvumeli ukulungiswa kwakhona kwekhowudi yento ngeendlela ezingalindelwanga ngenxa yokuxhomekeka kwekhowudi.



Inkqubo esebenzayo iyasusa ukuxhomekeka ngokutshintsha iinkqubo ngemisebenzi emsulwa, efuna ukusetyenziswa kobume obungaguqukiyo. Ngenxa yoko, umgca wendibano awusekho; Isicelo sinokusebenzisa idatha sisebenzisa iindlela ezifanayo ezisetyenziswe kwizibalo ezimsulwa. Isithintelo esibonakala ngathi singashukumiyo sibonelela ngeendlela zokuvumela nabani na oqonda imathematika yemeko ukuba enze nesicelo sokwenza izibalo.

Sebenzisa imisebenzi emsulwa kudala imeko eguqukayo apho iodolo yekhowudi ixhomekeke kwisiseko sezibalo. Ezi modeli zezibalo ziindawo zokwenene zehlabathi, kwaye njengoko ukuqonda kwethu okusingqongileyo kuguquka kwaye kuguquka, imodeli yezibalo kunye nekhowudi esebenzayo inokutshintsha ngayo - ngaphandle kweengxaki zesiqhelo ezibangela ukuba ikhowudi enyanzelekileyo isilele. Ukulungisa ikhowudi esebenzayo kukhawuleza kwaye kuncitshiswe iimpazamo ngenxa yokuba umntu ophumeza utshintsho kufuneka aqonde kuphela izibalo kwaye akadingi kwazi ukuba isebenza njani ikhowudi. Ukongeza, ukufunda indlela yokwenza ikhowudi esebenzayo kunokukhawuleza ngokukhawuleza ukuba umntu uyayiqonda imodeli yezibalo kunye nobudlelwane bayo kwilizwe lokwenyani.

Inkqubo yokusebenza ikwabandakanya inani leendlela ezizodwa zokufaka iikhowudi, njengokukwazi ukugqithisa umsebenzi uye komnye umsebenzi njengegalelo. Olu lwazi lukwenza ukuba ukwazi ukutshintsha indlela oziphethe ngayo ngendlela enokuxelwa kwangaphambili engenakwenzeka usebenzisa ezinye iiparadigms zenkqubo.

Sebenzisa indlela emsulwa kwinkqubo yokusebenza

Iilwimi zenkqubo ezisebenzisa indlela emsulwa kwinkqubo yokusebenza yparadigm ixhomekeke kwimigaqo yokubala ye-lambda, ubukhulu becala. Ukongeza, ulwimi olusulungekileyo luvumela ukusetyenziswa kweenkqubo ezisebenzayo kuphela, ukuze isiphumo sihlale siyinkqubo esebenzayo. Ulwimi olusulungekileyo yiHaskell kuba ibonelela ngolona nyulo lunyulu, ngokwe amanqaku malunga nokusebenza kwenkqubo . IHaskell ikwalulwimi oludumileyo, ngokwe Isalathiso seTIOBE . Ezinye iilwimi ezisulungekileyo zibandakanya iLisp, Racket, Erlang, kunye ne-OCaml.

Njengakwezinto ezininzi zenkqubo, izimvo ziqhutywa ngamandla malunga nokuba ngaba ulwimi oluthile lwenkqubo luyakufanelekela ubume obunyulu. Umzekelo, abantu abaninzi baya kuthathela ingqalelo iJavaScript njengolwimi olusulungekileyo, nangona ingachwethezwanga. Abanye banoluvo lokuba iilwimi ezichazayo ezikwisizinda ezinje nge-SQL kunye ne-Lex / Yacc zikulungele ukufumana imeko esulungekileyo nangona ingezizo iilwimi zenkqubo ngokubanzi. Ngokulula nje ukuba nezinto ezisebenzayo zeenkqubo azilulungelanga ulwimi njengokubambelela kwindlela emsulwa.

Sebenzisa indlela engalunganga kwinkqubo yokusebenza

Abaphuhlisi abaninzi baye bazibona izibonelelo zenkqubo yokusebenza. Nangona kunjalo, abafuni nokuyeka izibonelelo zolwimi lwabo olukhoyo, ke basebenzise ulwimi oluxuba izinto ezisebenzayo kunye nenye yeeparadigms zenkqubo. Umzekelo, unokufumana iinkqubo ezisebenzayo kwiilwimi ezinje ngeC ++, C #, kunye neJava. Xa usebenza nolwimi olungahlambulukanga, kuya kufuneka ukhathalele kuba ikhowudi yakho ayizukusebenza ngendlela esebenzayo, kunye neempawu onokucinga ukuba ziya kusebenza ngenye indlela zisebenza kwenye. Umzekelo, awunakho ukudlulisa umsebenzi uye komnye umsebenzi kwezinye iilwimi.

Ulwimi olunye, IPython, yenzelwe kwasekuqaleni ukuxhasa iinkqubo ezininzi zenkqubo . Ngapha koko, ezinye iikhosi ezikwi-Intanethi kwinkqubo yenza inqaku lokufundisa lo mbandela wePython njengenzuzo ekhethekileyo. Inkqubo ye- Ukusetyenziswa kweeparadigms ezininzi zenkqubo yenza iPython ibe bhetyebhetye kodwa ikhokelele kwizikhalazo nakwabaxolisi. IPython ilungele ukubonisa indlela engalunganga kwinkqubo yokusebenza kuba iyathandwa kwaye iyaguquguquka, kwaye kulula ukuyifunda.