Yintoni iTheyori yoMculo?

Ngu-Michael Pilhofer

Enye yezona zinto zibalulekileyo ekufuneka uzikhumbule ithiyori yomculo kukuba umculo weza kuqala. Umculo ubukhona amawaka eminyaka ngaphambi kokuba kufike ithiyori yokuchaza into abantu abazama ukuyifeza xa bebetha iidrum zabo.

Ke, ungaze ucinge ukuba awungekhe ube yimvumi elungileyo ngenxa yokuba ungazange uthathe iklasi yethiyori. Ngapha koko, ukuba uyimvumi elungileyo, ngokuqinisekileyo sele uyazi iithiyori ezininzi. Akunakusazi isigama okanye ubuchwephesha.



ithiyori yomculo kwikhibhodi

Ngu-Ogrim / Shutterstock.com

Iikhonsepthi kunye nemithetho eyenza ithiyori yomculo ifana nemithetho yegrama elawula ulwimi olubhaliweyo (olwavela nasemva kokuba abantu befumene ngempumelelo indlela yokuthetha omnye komnye). Njengokuba nako ukukhuphela ulwimi kwenza ukuba abantu abakude beve iincoko kunye namabali ngendlela umbhali awayezimisele ngayo, ukukwazi ukukhuphela umculo kuvumela iimvumi ukuba zifunde kwaye zidlale iingoma ngokuchanekileyo njengoko umqambi wayezimisele.

Ipilisi emhlophe engqukuva engama-200

Ukufunda ukufunda umculo kufana nokufunda ulwimi olutsha, ukuya kuthi ga apho umntu otyibilikayo enokuva incoko yomculo xa efunda iphepha lomculo.

Uninzi lwabantu emhlabeni alunakufunda okanye ukubhala, kodwa basakwazi ukunxibelelana ngeengcinga kunye neemvakalelo zabo ngokuthetha kulungile. Kwangokunjalo, uninzi lweemvumi ezinomdla, ezifundisayo azikaze zifunde ukufunda okanye ukubhala umculo kwaye zifumane uluvo lonke lokufunda ithiyori yomculo iyadinisa kwaye ayimfuneko. Nangona kunjalo, njengokutsiba kwemfundo okunokuza nokufunda ukufunda nokubhala, ithiyori yomculo inokunceda iimvumi zisebenzise ubuchule obutsha, zenze iindlela ezingaqhelekanga zomculo, kwaye zikhulise ukuzithemba okufunekayo ekuzameni izinto ezintsha.

Iziqalo zethiyori zomculo ezingenanto

Ukusuka kwinto iimbali-mlando ezinokuyixela, ngelixesha ilizwe lamandulo laliqala ukuzinzisa-malunga ne-7000 BC - izixhobo zomculo besele zifezekisile ubunzima kuyilo oluya kuqhutywa ngalo lonke ixesha ukuza kuthi ga ngoku. Umzekelo, ezinye zeembande zethambo ezifunyenwe ngeli xesha zisadlala, kwaye kudlalwe ngokufutshane kuzo ukuze abaphulaphuli banamhlanje baziva.

Kwangokunjalo, iipictografi kunye nokuhonjiswa kwemingcwabo kubonise ukuba nge-3500 BC, ama-Iiphutha ayesebenzisa iihadi kunye nee-clarinet ezinengcongolo ezimbini, iihadi, kunye nenguqu yazo yombhobho. Ngo-1500 BC, amaHeti akumantla eSyria ayesele eyilungisile imilo yesandi / ihadi yase-Yiphutha kwaye ayila isiginkci sokuqala esinemitya emibini, enentamo ende, edakumbileyo, elungisa izikhonkwane phezulu entanyeni, kunye nebhodi yesandi engenanto ukwenza ngcono isandi semitya esitshulwayo.

Imibuzo emininzi engaphendulwanga ihleli malunga nomculo wakudala, njengesizathu sokuba uninzi lweenkcubeko ezahlukeneyo zize neempawu ezininzi zeetoni zomculo wazo ezizimeleyo ngokupheleleyo. Ithiyori ezininzi ziye zagqiba kwelokuba iipateni ezithile zamanqaku zivakala nje ngokuchanekileyo kubaphulaphuli, kwaye ezinye iipateni azenzi njalo. Ithiyori yomculo, ke, ngokulula kakhulu, inokuchazwa njengokukhangela ukuba kutheni kwaye kutheni umculo uvakala ulungile okanye ungalunganga. Ngamanye amagama, injongo yethiyori yomculo kukuchaza ngoba into ivakala ngendlela eyenze ngayo kwaye eso sandi sinokwenziwa njani kwakhona.

Uninzi lwabantu luthatha iGrisi yakudala njengendawo yokuzalwa yethiyori yomculo, kuba amaGrike amandulo aqala zonke izikolo zefilosofi kunye nesayensi eyakhelene nokuhluza zonke iinkalo zomculo ezazisaziwa ngelo xesha. Nditsho noPythagoras (unxantathu ongumfana) wangena kwisenzo ngokudala isikali se-octave se-12-pitch esifana naleso zisetyenziswa ziimvumi nabaqambi namhlanje. Wenze oku ngeSangqa sokuqala sesihlanu, isixhobo esisasetyenziswa ngokwenkolo ziimvumi kuzo zonke iinkalo zobomi.

Esinye isazinzulu esidumileyo saseGrisi nesithandi sobulumko, uAristotle, uxanduva lweencwadi ezininzi malunga nethiyori yomculo. Waqala uhlobo oluqhelekileyo lomculo owahlala usetyenziswa eGrisi kunye neenkcubeko ezalandelayo phantse iminyaka eliwaka emva kokubhubha kwakhe.

Ngapha koko, uninzi lomculo wethiyori womculo wabekwa eGrisi yakudala kangangokuba utshintsho olukhulu alukhange lubonakale luyimfuneko kude kube lixesha lovuselelo lwaseYurophu phantse kwiminyaka engama-2 000 kamva. Abamelwane kunye naboyisi baseGrisi babonwabile kunene ukufaka izibalo, isayensi, ifilosofi, ubugcisa, uncwadi kunye nomculo wamaGrike kwiinkcubeko zabo.

Iingcamango zomculo ezisisiseko

Ngelixa kunokuba kuhle ukuba ngomnye wabo bantu banokuhlala kuso nasiphi na isixhobo kwaye badlale umculo omnandi ngaphandle koqeqesho, abantu abaninzi bafuna uhlobo oluthile lomyalelo ocwangcisiweyo, nokuba uvela kutitshala okanye ufunda incwadi. Apha, siya kulwazi olusisiseko olufunekayo ukuqala ukufunda ukufunda umculo, ukudlala izikali, ukuqonda utyikityo oluphambili, ukwakha ii-chords, kunye nokudibanisa ngeefom.

iziphumo ebezingalindelekanga kwi-predisone

Isiseko: Amanqaku, ukuphumla kunye nokubetha

Ukufunda indlela yokufunda umculo kubalulekile kwimvumi, ngakumbi lowo ufuna ukwabelana ngomculo wakhe nezinye iimvumi okanye afumanise ukuba ezinye iimvumi zidlala ntoni. Ngokufunda izinto ezisisiseko, ezinje ngamaxabiso exesha kuhlobo ngalunye lwenqaku elibhaliweyo, ukuphumla komculo, ukutyikitywa kwexesha, kunye nesingqisho, uzibeka kwikhondo lokuba ngumculo. Zonke ezi zinto ziyahlangana ukuseka isiseko esikuvumela ukuba ufunde, udlale, kwaye ufunde umculo.

Ukulawula kunye nokudibanisa amanqaku

Ukufunda amanqaku omculo kuzo zombini iitreble kunye ne-bass clef staves kunye nokufumana amanqaku kwipiyano kunye negitare - ezona zixhobo zixhaphakileyo abantu abazifundisa ukuzidlala- zibalulekile ekwenzeni nasekufundeni umculo.

Xa unokufunda amanqaku kwizibonda, unokumisela isiqwenga somculo utyikityo oluphambili, Eli liqela leempawu ezikuxelela ukuba leliphi iqhosha elibhalwe kulo ingoma. Ungasebenzisa isangqa sesihlanu ukunceda ukuziqeqesha ukufunda iisayinithi eziphambili ngokubona ngokubala okanye ngeeflethi kwisiginitsha yexesha.

zide kangakanani ii-antibiotics ezichaphazela ulawulo lokuzalwa

Emva kokuba uqhelane notyikityo oluphambili, ukulungele ukuqhubekeka uye kumanqwanqwa, ii-chord, kunye noqhubekeko lwe-chord, ezenza ukuntsokotha kwesandi somculo-ukusuka kukonwabisa kunye nokuthomalalisa ukuya kumaxesha kwaye kufuna isisombululo. Wakha izikali kunye neekhowudi usebenzisa izithuba ezilula okanye ezimbaxa: umculo kunye nehelonic.

Ukuqhagamshela ikhibhodi kunye notation yomculo

Phambi kwexesha loKuqala, zimbalwa iinguqulelo zokwenene ezenzekileyo kwitekhnoloji yomculo. Izixhobo ezinemitya, imimoya yomoya, iimpondo, kunye nezixhobo zokubetha zazikho malunga neminyaka engamawaka, kwaye nangona babenamava okuphucuka kuyilo nakwindlela yokudlala, babezizixhobo ezifanayo ezazisetyenziswa ngabantu beenkcubeko zamandulo. Kwakungekho i-1300s apho imbonakalo yomculo entsha yavela: ikhibhodi.

Ngokuyilwa kwebhodi yezitshixo kwaqala ukuqala kwenqaku lomculo langoku- umculo obhaliweyo. Ikhonkco lokubhalwa kwebhodibhodi lakhuthazwa ngenxa yokulula kokuqamba iiokhestra ngokupheleleyo kwikhibhodi. Kananjalo, uninzi lomsebenzi osandula ukuthunyelwa wenziwa ngenxa yezixhobo zebhodi yezitshixo ngenxa yokuqonda koluntu ngebhodi yezitshixo njengesixhobo esiphezulu.

Abaqambi benkulungwane yeshumi elinesihlanu baseFrance baqala ukongeza imigca emininzi njengoko befuna kwizinti zabo zomculo. Babhala nomculo oneentonga ezininzi eziza kudlalwa ngaxeshanye ngezixhobo ezahlukeneyo. Ngenxa yokuba ikhibhodi inamanqaku amaninzi afumanekayo, iintonga ezahlukileyo zokudlala ngasekhohlo nasekunene zaqala ukusetyenziswa. Ezi zibonda ziyi-bass clef kunye ne-treble clef.

Iibhodi yezitshixo ikwanethuba lokuba ngokulula kakhulu kube lula ukwakha amakhonkco kuyo. Ngenkulungwane ye-17, abasebenzi abanemigca emihlanu babethathelwa ingqalelo njengowona mgangatho wesixhobo somculo- mhlawumbi kuba kwakulula kwaye kungabizi kakhulu ukuprinta uhlobo olunye kuphela lomculo wephepha kwiimvumi ukuba ziqambe kuwo. Inkqubo ayitshintshanga kangako kwiinkulungwane ezine ezidlulileyo, kwaye ngekhe iphinde itshintshe kude kube yinto entsha, enomtsalane ngakumbi kwisixhobo esibonakalayo.

Uhlobo lomculo kunye nokwenziwa

Owona mculo uthandwayo kunye neklasikhi ubhalwa kusetyenziswa iifom ezithile. A ifom luyilo loyilo olusetyenziselwa ukwenza uhlobo oluthile lomculo. Iibhloko zokwakha zefom zibandakanya amabinzana omculo kunye namaxesha, kunye nesingqisho, uncuthu lwengoma, kunye nemvisiswano faka umfanekiso ukwenza i uhlobo, okanye isimbo, somculo.

Xa uhleli phantsi ukuze ubhale umculo, kuya kufuneka ukhethe ukuba uza kulandela yiphi ifom; umzekelo, classical okanye ethandwayo. Unokukhetha kwiindidi ezahlukeneyo zeklasikhi nezithandwayo, kubandakanya i-sonatas, i-concertos, i-16-bar blues, kunye nefomathi ye-chorus. Unokwenza isandi esahlukileyo nangayiphi na indlela oyikhethayo ngokudlala ngetempo, amandla, kunye nethoni yezixhobo zombala.

isetyenziselwa ntoni ibactrim

Ithiyori inokunceda njani umculo wakho

Ukuba ubungazi ngcono, ungacinga ukuba umculo yinto enokuthi iqale nakweyiphi na inqaku, uye naphina apho ifunayo, kwaye uyeke nanini na xa umenzi wevolontiya eziva ngathi uphakama ngeglasi yeti yeti. Nangona kuyinyani ukuba uninzi lwabantu luye lwenziwa kwimidlalo yomculo ethi ilandele le ndlela yokwenziwa, ubukhulu becala le midlalo iyabhidisa kwaye iyacaphukisa kwaye iyaziva iyinto engenantsingiselo.

Abantu kuphela abanokukhupha i-jam ngokukhawuleza kakuhle ngabo bawazi umculo ngokucokisekileyo ngokwaneleyo ukuba bangafaka ii-chord kunye namanqaku ecaleni kwenye ukuze ke babe nengqondo kubaphulaphuli. Kwaye, kuba umculo ngokwemvelo luhlobo lonxibelelwano, ukunxibelelana nabaphulaphuli bakho yeyona njongo.

Ukwazi ngakumbi malunga nethiyori yomculo kukwakhuthaza ngendlela emangalisayo. Akukho nto inokuchaza imvakalelo oyifumanayo xa ibhalbhu yesibane icima entlokweni yakho kwaye ngequbuliso uyaqonda ukuba ungabeka inkqubela phambili yeebhloko ezili-12 kunye nokwakha ingoma emnandi ngokwenene kuyo. Okanye xa ujonga isiqwenga somculo weklasiki kwaye uzifumanele ujonge ukudlala ngawo okokuqala. Okanye okokuqala uhleli phantsi ukudibana nabahlobo bakho kwaye ufumanisa ukuba unokuzithemba ekukhokeleni.

Njengemvumi, inyani engenakuphepheka yile: Into oyifumanayo kumculo yile uyifaka kuyo. Ukuba ufuna ukudlala umculo weklasikhi, kuya kufuneka uyazi ukubona-ukufunda kunye nendlela yokugcina ukubetha okuzinzileyo. Ukuba ucwangcisa ukuba sisigingci selitye, ukwazi ukuba yeyiphi amanqaku ekufuneka uyidlalile kwisitshixo esinikiweyo kubaluleke ngakumbi. Ukwazi indlela yokudlala umculo kuthatha uqeqesho oluninzi lomntu, kodwa ekugqibeleni, kufanelekile wonke umsebenzi onzima. Kwaye, ewe, ukudlala umculo kumnandi, kwaye nokwazi ukuwudlala kakuhle umculo kumnandi kakhulu. Wonke umntu uyayithanda inkwenkwezi yedwala / indoda yejazz / iMozart.